Logo of ESHPh, used on covers of printed Photohistorica

photohistorica abstracts:  [1993]  [1994]
Index of  [Authors]   [journals]  for 1993 and 1994

photohistorica 56/57

Serial Literature Index
of the European Society for the History of Photography

Listing for 1994:  7571 to 7884

Compiler and editor: R. Derek Wood

Published by the European Society for the History of Photography:
February 1996


PH94–7571    P.J. Kaiser, of: het gebruik van de fotografie in de sterrendunde, 1839–1880
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 263–286
Sketches first a background history of the earliest uses of photography for scientific purposes. Then in particular discusses an item in the Netherlands Rijksmuseum, being a doctorial thesis of 1862 by Pieter Jan Kaiser (1838–1916). In that thesis, Kaiser reviewed the history of astronomical photography since 1839, and described his own efforts from about 1860.

PH94–7572  The Photogrammetric Society Analogue Instrument Project [Parts 2, 3, 4 and 5]
Photogrammetric Record, April 1994: 14 (83), 769–82 [Part 2];  October 1994, 14 (84), 957–71 [Part 3];   April 1995, 15 (85), 85–90 [Part 4]; October 1995, 15 (86), 251–61 [Part 5]. 
Continuation of reports (see PH93–7230 for the first report)  of  an on–going project to catalogue analogue photogrammetric equipment manufactured and used between the 1920s to 1980s

PH94–7573  The progress of Silver Halide Photography in Medical and Graphic Arts Imaging
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Jan/Feb 1994, 38 (1), 36–40
A review of the progress in the past three decades that silver halide photography has made in the fields of medical and graphic arts imaging. The major achievements in each of the three decades are summarized, together with the photographic technologies that made these achievements possible. Research and development brought about those achievements by focusing on two areas — optimized system design and efficient production engineering.

PH94–7574  History of Russian Radiology 1896–1917,
RadioGraphics (Radiological Society of North America), May 1994, 14 (3), 671–3, with 5 figs
Röntgen’s discovery of the x–ray created enthusiasm in academic and medical circles in the Russian empire.  In Riga, Latvia, on 6 January 1896, Rautenferd–Linder  and  Pflaum  produced  the  first  x–ray image  of  fish maxilla.  On 12 and 13 January at St. Petersburg, Borgman and Girchen obtained x–ray images of nonbiological objects and of human bone on 16 January.  Preobrazchensky obtained the first diagnostic x–ray image on 17 January 1896.  On 31 January 1896 when the Russian translation of Röntgen’s New Rays was published in St. Petersburg, the title page included a picture of an x–ray image of a human hand that had been produced by Borgman on 22 January – the exposure had taken ten minutes.  From 1897 to 1917 over 600 articles concerning radiology were published along with fourteen text books and 15 monographs. Russia did not produce its own x–ray equipment and so had to purchase it elsewhere and overseas manufacturers had representatives only in St. Petersburg and Moscow.

PH94–7575  The New Photography: Photographic contributions to the early development of Diagnostic Radiology
GUY, J. M.,
British Journal of Radiology, 1994, 67, congress p. 152
Abstract only of a paper read at Annual Congress held at Harrogate in May 1994: ‘Various technologies combined to make possible the discovery of x–rays in 1895... While not essential to the production of x–rays, photographic recording was instrumental in the development of radiodiagnostic technique... Dry plate photography was still a recent development in 1896. Some film had been produced but was not widely used in radiography until after the First World War.  The theory of fluorescence and intensifying screens was known in 1896, but application to routine radiography was slow, because of the graininess of films produced. Photographers were notable among the pioneer radiographers’

PH94–7576  The work of the Deutsches Roentgen–Museum
British Journal of Radiology, 1994, 67, congress p. 151
Abstract only is recorded of a paper read at 52nd Annual Congress of the British Institute of Radiology: ‘The Deutsches Roentgen–Museum is situated in Remscheid–Lennep, the birthplace of Wilheim Conrad Roentgen. It presents a collection of apparatus used to produce and apply X–rays... Roentgen physics in contrast with most other scientific fields is closely related to many other areas such as physics, medicine, technology and the arts.  The museum has assumed the task of documenting the research work of W. C. Roentgen... studies can be completed by the use of the special reference library equipped with works about Roentgen physics, Roentgen technology and Roentgen medicine.’


PH94–7577    Jens Poul Andersen 1844–1935. Kamerabyggeren fra Nellerød
LØVSTAD, Sigfred, et. al.,
Objektiv (Dansk Fotohistorisk Selskab), Oktober 1994, (66), 1–71
This well illustrated special issue on the Danish camera maker, J.P. Andersen and his cameras, consists of the following articles:  BERENDT, Flemming, ‘En biografi’, 7–13; LØVSTAD, Sigfred, ‘Landbysnedkerens fototekniske  konstruktioner’, 14–37; BEYER, Flemming, ‘Værksted og værktøj’ [on Andersen’s workshop and tools], 38–41; LØVSTAD, S., ‘Breve til og fra Jens Poul Anderson, Peter Elfelt og Holger Rosenberg’ [Andersen’s correspondence], 42–52, [JPA Camera 232] 57; LØVSTAD, S., ‘Jens Poul Andersen og redakør Bertel Møller, Kolding Avis’ [Letters to Møller and others], 58–61; VELLEV, Jens, ‘Hugo Matthiessens kamera...’, 62–3; LØVSTAD, S.,‘Kendte Jens Poul Andersen “Nellerød–kameraer” og kinoudstry m.v.’, 64–71

PH94–7578    Lærling hos J. P. A. [M. L. Christiansen (1877–1944)]
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 46–7
Marius Lauritz Christiansen (1877–1944) was apprenticed to J. P. Andersen (see PH94–7577, above) in the 1890s

PH94–7579    Commentary on Taft [Commentary, notes and reconsideration of Robert Taft’s article on ‘John Plumbe, America’s First Nationally known Photographer’]
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 48–57
Robert Taft, historian of American Photography, originally wrote on the life of John Plumbe (1809–1857) and his part in earlier history of photography in America in the 1840s.  That article from American Photography, January 1936, 30, 1–12, is reprinted on pp. 49–53 of this issue of The Daguerreian Annual 1994, annotated by C. Krainik on pp. 53–4, with an extra ‘Commentary’ by Krainik on pp. 55–6

PH94–7580    Mini–biography: Sarah L. (Judd) Eldridge [1802–1886]
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 233
Sarah Louise Judd was born in Connecticut in 1802. Brief gleanings (from documents and deeds held in Minnesotta archives) on her life, particularly with regard to the period she settled at Stillwater, Minnesota (where she died in 1886),  being a school teacher there, and becoming a ‘Woman of Property’. The reason for her appearance in the pages of the Daguerreian Annual is that ‘Mrs. A. Aldridge made daguerreotypes first in the spring of 1848, and continued in Stillwater two years;  succeeded by Truax, Everett and others.’  No examples of her work are known
PH94–7581    Charles Blacker Vignoles [1793–1875]
HALL–PATCH, Anthony,
PhotoHistorian (Royal Photographic Society Historical Group), Autumn 1994, (105), 22–5
An account of the life and engineering work of Vignoles who the author rates as ‘without doubt one of the most significant railway engineers of the nineteenth century’. He was involved in railway surveys in England, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Brazil,  as well as the design of an important suspension bridge over the Dnieper at Kiev. [The author does not try to discuss Vignoles involvement in the beginnings of the [Royal] Photographic Society of London in 1853 but a note by Richard Morris on this subject is appended: see the following item]

PH94–7582  Vignoles on Photography from the RPS archives
MORRIS, Richard,
PhotoHistorian (Royal Photographic Society Historical Group), Autumn 1994, (105), 25–6
Provides information about C.B. Vignoles’ involvement with the formation of the (Royal) Photographic Society of London and attendance at their meetings and exhibitions in 1853 and 1854 gleaned from the first issues of the Society’s Photographic Journal and ‘hastily gathered together for Mr Hall–Patch’ [see item PH94–7581, above].  At the Photographic Society’s first exhibition held on 4 January 1854 he was listed not as a photographer but as an exhibitor of some of Roger Fenton’s photographs of the bridge at Kief.  No photographs by Vignoles are known

PH94–7583    Amsterdam in 1894. Panoramas en stadsgezichten van G.H. Heinen.
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 243–262
Amsterdam was the theme of photographer Gerrti Henricus Heinen (1851–1930).  In 1894 he brought out a Collotype Album of the city (several views illustrated in the article).  Little is known of the early life of Heinen, who came from a farming family at Aalten in the Netherlands. After training as a house and decorative painter in Rotterdam, he moved to Amsterdam in 1877.  Married a Swiss woman, Marie Streuli, in 1880, and they had nine children.  He retired in 1913 but continued to paint basreliefs, spending the last years of his life in Italy as a wealthy man. Died on one of his frequent visits to Aalten in 1930.    (In Dutch) 

PH94–7584    Keuze uit de aanwinsten [Schenking foto’s van E.I. Asser]
BOOM, Mattie,
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 287–305
Examines four albums containing 200 photographs by the Dutch advocate Eduard Isaac Asser (1809–1894).  He began as an amateur, making daguerreotypes in the second half of the 1840s, going over to paper negatives at the end of that decade.  His subjects included portraits, still lifes, art reproductions and views of Amsterdam.  In 1855 he took part in the first Dutch national exhibition of photograph in Amsterdam. Thereafter Asser devoted himself entirely to photography, sending prints to various exhibitions and winning international renown.   (In Dutch)

PH94–7585    Another piece of a Jigsaw [James Robertson, and two Beato brothers being Felice and Antoine Beato]
LAZARD, Bertrand [and editorial comment]
PhotoHistorian (Royal Photographic Society Historical Group), Autumn 1994, (105), 20–1
A brief, but historically important, note by the editor of the journal that Bertrand Lazard has found a register of British Subjects that was maintained at the British Consulate in Jerusalem which shows (illustrated on p. 21) that ‘James Robertson, Antoine Beato, Felice Beato’ were entered into that Register on March 3 1857 as having arrived there from Constantinople on the previous day of March 2, 1857.  This provides some evidence, the editor points out, that all three were working together, that Antonio (or the French form Antoine being his preference) had been in Constantinople, that both Beato brothers are listed as British subjects, and explains some Palestine photographs signed as Robertson, Beato & Co., and some as Robertson, Beato et Cie.

PH 94–7586     F. Holland Day.
Anthology:  CURTIS, Verna Posever (guest editor), et.al.
History of Photography, Winter 1994, 18 (4), 299–386.
This issue (except for three pages of correspondence regarding an earlier special issue of 1994 on Erotic Photography) is entirely devoted to F. Holland Day (1884–1933), American fin de siècle aesthete. After a one–page guest editorial on an unpaginated verso of the title page, the contributions are by CURTIS, Verna P., F.Holland Day [FHD] The Poetry of Photography , 299–321;  CRUMP, James, FHD ‘Sacred Subjects’ and ‘Greek Love’, 322–33;  MICHAELS, Barbara L., New Light on FHD’s Photographs of African Americans , 334–47;  BERMAN, Patricia G., FHD and His ‘Classical’ Models , 348–67;  NIMMEN, Jan Van, FHD and the Display of a New Art ‘Behold, It is I’, 368–82;  FANNING, Patricia J., Some Research Materials: FHD’s Writings on Photography, 383–4;  BALK, Eugene, Some Research Materials: FHD Photographs [in the] Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress , 384–6.    After publication, J. Crump’s article resulted in a letter by B. Bradish questioning whether or not a homoerotic subtext might apply only to one of Day’s Crucifixion images rather than applying more generally to that group of his photographs (BRADISH, Bill, History of Photography, Autumn 1995, 19 (3), 272)

PH94–7587    M. O. Hammond of Toronto: Canadians Colonials and Public Taste
DEWAN, Janet,
History of Photography,  Spring 1994, 18 (1), 64–77
On the life and influence of M. O. Hammond (1876–1934), journalist and photographer, a fixture in the Toronto cultural scene from 1906 when he became literary editor and reviewer of art and photographic exhibitions for the newspaper The Globe. He represented the mainstream Canadian taste in the first third of the twentieth century

PH94–7588    Rediscovering Mrs G.A. Barton
JAMES, Peter,
History of Photography, Summer 1994, 18 (2), 196
The British pictorialist Mrs G.A. Barton (1872–1938), was born Emma Rayson in Birmingham in 1872. Her first success came in 1901 when a child study was hung in the exhibitions of the Royal Photographic Society and the London Salon. She was soon being hailed as a rising star and in October 1904 an exhibition of sixty–seven of her carbon and gum prints was opened at the Royal Photographic Society in London, an important moment in the history of British women’s photography.   Between 1910 and 1919 she produced a series of delicate autochromes. The shift in pictorial aesthetics after World War I made it difficult for her to maintain a pre–eminent position with the idealized imagery that had previously won her acclaim.

PH94–7589    Marketable maidens
Women’s Art Magazine (London), July/August 1994, (59), 45–6
In relation to a current exhibition, ‘Edwardian Women Photographers’, at the National Portrait Gallery in London, brief biographies of four photographers who were at work in the early years of the twentieth century in England:  Eveleen Myers (1856–1937), Alice Hughes (1857–1939), Christina Broom (1856–1939) and Olive Edis (1876–1955)

PH94–7590    Mothers and cupids
Country Life, 14 July 1994, 188 (28), 74–7
Between 1898 and 1909, Miss Alice Hughes (1857–1939) contributed numerous frontispieces for County Life. She once explained ‘I had 13 to 15 sitters a day, and the majority of these people of note, if the papers wanted photographs of society ladies they were obliged to apply to me.’  Her father was an artist with a studio in Gower street, London, who painted aristocratic ladies. Both worked together and his sitters would come to her. After the first world war she re–established her studio in Ebury Street, London, until 1933, but in this later period her success was limited

PH94–7591    A Woman’s work is never done [Jo Spence (1934–1992)]
Women’s Art Magazine, July/Aug 1994, (59), 47–8
For nearly thirty years Jo Spence had worked commercially in London and in the 1970s did documentary work in Photography Workshop

PH94–7592    Frances Benjamin Johnston [1864–1952], Pioneer with a Camera was The Dirty Lady Photographer
Photographica (American Photographic Historical Society), July 1994, 23 (3), 3–5
‘Republication from Graphic Antiquarian’, but authorship and date of original publication not stated. The title is derived from a episode at an early stage of Miss Johnston’s professional career when she photographed in coal mines in Pennsylvania, becoming a ‘pacesetter in American documentary photography.’ Five illustrations including one in which Frances Johnston is featured alongside a display of her architectural photographs at the Library of Congress in Washington in 1847. Her vast collection of negatives is now stored in the Library of Congress

PH94–7593    Nadar [1820–1910] — Darling of the Boulevards
SOEL, Robert W.,
Photographica (American Photographic Historical Society), October 1994, 23 (4), 3–6
Said to be reprinted from Graphic Antiquarian: the Magazine for Collectors of Photographica, but original date of that publication not given. Five illustrations including two whole page illustrations of mock–up sheets showing the Nadar studio portraits of Artists and Actresses and ‘fashion models’ around 1870.

PH94–7594    Paul Strand: the world on my doorstep
DUNCAN, Catherine,
Aperture, Spring 1994, (135), 2–125
This entire unpaginated issue celebrates the last twenty–five years of the life and work of Paul Strand from 1950, when he expatriated to France to get away from the McCarthyism of the United States, until his death in 1976.  Editorial Introduction on p. 1; Catherine Duncan’s text ‘Paul and Hazel Strand: An Intimate Portrait’ on pp. 8–23; A portfolio of Strand’s photographs taken in France, Italy, Hebrides, Egypt, Morocco, Ghana, and Romania, 24–121; Chronology (1890–1976), 124–5
PH94–7595    A private passion [Tim Gidal]
HALLETT, Michael,
British Journal of Photography, 3 March 1994, (6963), 22–3, 25
Born in 1909, Nachum Tim Gidal is one of the few survivors of East European photographers who made Picture Post
PH94–7596    Zum 85 Geburtstag — Nachum Tim Gidal — Pionier des modernen Bildjornalismus,
MFM Fototechnik (Ludwigsburg), April 1994, 42 (4), 14
PH94–7597    Zum 100 Geburtstag von André Kertész [1894–1985]
MFM Fototechnik, Juli 1994, 42 (7), 24
PH94–7598    Zum 100 Geburtstag von Jacques–Henri Lartique
MFM Fototechnik, Juli 1994, 42 (7), 25
PH94–7599    Peter Le Neve Foster [1809–1879] and Photography,
RSA Journal (Royal Society of Arts, London), November 1994, 142 (5454), 67–70
PH94–7600    W. F. Stanley (1829–1909)
DUNN, Mike,
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 26–7
Designer of the Panoptic Stereoscope around 1857, Stanley wrote Photography made Easy which appeared in 1872.  In the 1880s he patented a number of significant improvements to cameras, Stanley’s Engineer’s Camera, Stanley’s Patent Portable Tourist Camera and the New Model  Tourist Camera in 1890
PH94–7601    Colin Ford C.B.E.
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 7–9
An interview by the editor of this journal with the outgoing head of the National Museum of Film, Photography and Television at Bradford, England.  A brief biography and his recollections of establishing and running this museum.  Two portraits
PH94–7602    Amanda Nevill
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 21–5
Interview in February 1994 with Amanda Neville recently appointed second head of the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television at Bradford.
PH94–7603    Recollections
CORFIELD, Sir Kenneth,
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 15–20
This is Sir Kenneth Corfield’s speech to the Photographic Collectors Club of Great Britain in October 1990 about his career in designing, manufacturing and selling camers (which incuded the Periflex range) and assorted photographic accessories
PH94–7604    Face to Face with Fame [Gisele Freund]
MARTINS, Kirsten,
Women’s Art Magazine, July/Aug 1994, (59), 43–4
The author interviews Gisele Freund — born in Berlin, 1913.  Ilustrated with a portrait of Freund by Emily Andersen
PH94–7605    The Man who shot Che Guevara
LOVIGNY, Christophe,
Independent on Sunday (London), 12 June 1994, Review p. 40–1
Photographer ‘Korda’ was born Alberto Diaz Gutierrez in Cuba in 1928, the same year that Guevara was born in Argentina.  Korda started a studio of that name in Havana in 1956. He photographed Castro in 1959 and became his personal photographer for ten years. Che Guevara happened to be near when Castro was giving a speech in 1960, so Korda took a quick opportunity to photograph him. In 1967 Korda gave that photograph to the Italian left–wing publisher Feltrinelli who published this image as the famous poster.  The publisher made a fortune, while the photographer received nothing. Korda has never become embittered by that situation.  Illustrated by a contact sheet showing 16 frames of the original negative
PH94–7606    Eugène Atget (1857–1927) arpenteur du réel
Recherche Photographique, Printemps 1994, (16), 94–9
‘Si on la compare à celle d’un écrivain, l’une des choses qui frappe, dans la vie d’Eugène Atget, c’est le contraste qui existe entre la quantité extraordinaire de photographies qu’il a laisée — et la rareté des documents de première main qui se   rapportent à ce qu’il pensait lui–même de son travail ...’
PH94–7607    La vie Henri [Cartier–Bresson]
Sunday Times Magazine (London), 29 May 1994, 38–49
Berger’s interview with Henri Cartier–Bresson., with seven illustrations of C–B’s photographs.  This interview also appeared in Aperture, Winter [1994–]1995, (138), 12–23
PH94–7608    Photographic Greats: Sebastião Salgado; Josef Koudelka; Martin Parr; Graham Smith; Cartier–Bresson.
LEE, David,
Art Review (London), February 1994, 52–5;
March 1994, 52–5; April 1994, 44–7; May 1994, 50–5; July/August 1994, 54–7
PH94–7609    Roland Ward — a compulsive photographer
MELVIN, Ronald,
Deja–View (Photo Collectors Club of New Zealand), December 1994, (10), 14–15
Born in Stockport, England, Ward emigrated to New Zealand in 1927 where the bulk of his work was devoted to comical trick photography
PH94–7610    Tom Shanahan: A short account of his hitherto unrecorded contribution to NZ photography
MAIN, Bill,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, May 1994, (15), 3–12
Tom Shanahan, born in Auckland in 1929, worked as a trombone player in the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. Reproduced is a selection of thirteen of his photographs of people in public places from the 1960s and early 1970s


cameras & optics


PH94–7611    The rise and fall of the leaf shuttered SLR
HUTTON, Geoffrey,
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 15–18
PH94–7612    The screw mount Pentax
TODD, Dave,
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 22–3, 31
PH94–7613    A fresh look at the Monocular Reflex in the Isenberg Collection
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 24–5
PH94–7614    Fretwork and Cameras: The enigma of the missing Norfolk cameras
DUNN, Mike,
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 28, 36
PH94–7615    Sciopticon
DUNN, Mike,
Photographica World, March 1994, 968), 30–1
Describes the Sciopticon camera, ‘presumably attributed to George Smith since it is based on his 1881 patent.’
PH94–7616    Kodak Retina IIIC Cameras (Stuttgart Type 028):The original production variants and 1977 ‘New Type’
JENTZ, David L., and TOCH, Peter L.,
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 29–30
PH94–7617    I wonder if anyone brought them...
PEARCE, Stephen,
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 37
Advertisements in Great Britain in 1951 and 1952 occasionally included relatively unknown, exotic foreign cameras at high prices
PH94–7618    Ultimates 3: The Twilight of the Gods — Cyclops and the Rumourflex
REES, Mike,
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 34–6
PH94–7619    The Voigtländer 6x6 Perkeo
Photographica World, March 1994, (68), 13–16
PH94–7620    The Voigtländer Bessa 466 camera
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 39
PH94–7621    Minox C repairs
TOOKE, Peter,
Photographica World, March 1994, (68), 20–1; September 1994 (70), 35–7
PH94–7622    Asahiflex.  The development and production of the first Japanes 35mm.SLR
WHITE, Derek, and CECCHI, Danilo,
Photographica World, March 1994, (68), 25–9
PH94–7623    Asahiflex and pre–1959 Asahi Pentax cameras. Notes from a collector [in 3 parts]
SHERFY, Frederick C.,
Photographica World,  1994:  Part 1 — June 1994 (69), 35–9; Part 2 — September 1994 (70), 32–4, 37; Part 3 — December 1994, (71), 35–8
PH94–7624    Great white hope — The Ilford Advocate
Photographica World, March 1994, (68), 32–4
PH94–7625    Forty years of the Folding Pocket Kodak
Photographica World, June 1994, (69), 10–12
PH94–7626    The known serial number series of Kodak Retina and Retinette cameras
TOCH, Peter L., and JENTZ, David L.,
Photographica World, June 1994, (69), 29–31
PH94–7627    ‘A Giant Amongst Midgets’
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 7–9
A history of the Ensign Midget camera manufactured by Houghton – Butcher Manufacturing Company
PH94–7628    Using the Ensign Midget
McTAGGART, George,
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 10–11
PH94–7629    The Dresen Camera Industry
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 11
PH94–7630    Ultimates 5. Stalwarts of the Leaf Shutter 35mm. SLR Era: 1953–1971
REES, Mike,
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 23–5
Includes the Zeiss Ikon Contaflex; Kodak Retina Reflex 1956–1967; Voigtländer Bessamatic 1959–1965, and Voigtländer Ultramatic 1963–1965
PH94–7631    Ultimates 6:  The end of an Era
REES, Mike,
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 7–9
Includes the Zeiss Ikon/Voigtländer Icarex (1967–1971); Rolleiflex SL35 and SL350 (1970–6); Rollei 35 M and ME/ Voigtländer VSL 1 and 2 (1976–1980); and Rollei SL 35E/Voigtländer VSL 3E (1978–1981)
PH94–7632    The Zorki
STEVENS, Michael,
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 28–30
PH94–7633    Zeiss Ikon Ikoflex Favorit 887/16 Equipped with Carl Zeiss Tessar f/3.5  75mm.Lens
SHEEHY, Terence,
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 39–40
PH94–7634    The Retina at 60
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 26
PH94–7635    Experiences with some Old Lenses
TANG, Samuel,
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 27–9
PH94–7636    Stereo
HEDEBY, Claes–G.,
Objektiv (Dansk Fotohistorisk Selskab), April 1994, (64), 56–7
A brief account of stereo cameras upto 1914, accompanied by illustrations of six stereo cameras in ‘The Swedish Camera Collection, Kameramuseets Vänner’:  Stereo Ruby, c1895; Hare Stereo, c1888; Weno Stereo c 1903; Stereo Hawkeye, c1904;  Bentzin Stereo, c1915; Polyscop, c1920
PH94–7637    The Foth Story / The Foth–Leica / The Foth that never was.
Back Focus (Photographic Collectors Society, Australia), April 1994, 10 (2), 14–19
Three articles on the camera manufacturer C.F. Foth & Co., of Berlin, and their cameras, especially on the Foth Derby of the 1930s.  Only the first article appears to be written originally for Back Focus, and (like the other two items) the authorship is not stated.  The third of these articles (‘The Foth that never was’, pp.18–9) was reprinted from an earlier unspecified issue of Deja–View (Magazine of the Photographic Collectors Association of New Zealand) and was later reprinted with different illustrations in Photographica (American Photographic Historical Society), July 1994, 23 (3), 11–12

PH94–7638    Fashion’s Full Circle. Konica’s Hexar revisited (several times)
Back Focus, April 1994, 10 (2), 3–5
Reprinted from Professional Photography in Australia, February 1993. An account of the cameras Konica I and II in the 1950s and the lenses Hexar and Hexanon
PH94–7639    Leica 0
Photographist, Winter 1993/4, (100), 4, 23
PH94–7640    The Hologon [Ultrawide]
Leica Fotografie International, 1994, 46 (2), 42–7
Discusses the 35 mm camera with integrated lens providing an angle of 110° which was patented in 1966.  After being shown at Photokina in 1968 was manufactured by Carl Zeiss of Oberkochen with the first delivery being in 1969 . Also provides a   brief history of wide angle lens since 1865
PH94–7641    Original or fake [Leicas]
HÖSEL, Hendrik,
Leica Fotografie International, 1994, 46 (6), 44–5; (7), 36–7; (8), 35–6.
PH94–7642    The Pocket Kodak: A Popular Little Box Camera
LONDON, Ralph,
Photographist, Winter 1993/4, (100), 9–15
PH94–7643    No Ordinary Camera
Photographic Canadiana, May/June 1994, 20 (1), 13–14
Description of a camera constructed in mahogany by F.E. Becker & Co. of London around 1894
PH94–7644    The largest Camera in the World
Photographist, Winter 1993/4, (100), 18–9
Reprint of an old article from The Camera and Darkroom of March 1902 on the huge camera manufactured for the Chicago and Alton Railway in 1899
PH94–7645    Exakta Exposures [part 5 and 6]
Deja–View [Photo Collectors Association of New Zealand], 1994:
Part 5 ‘More Exakta Lenses’— July 1994 (9), 17–19; Part 6 ‘Viewfinders, close up & accessories’ — December 1994 (10), 23–8

PH94–7646    Panoramic Cameras 1843–1994
McBRIDE, Bill,
Photographist (Whittier, California), Winter 1994/5, (104), 19–22
Chronological List giving brief information on eighty–one Panoramic cameras
PH94–7647    The Origins of the Panoramic Camera
MORTON, Steven,
PhotoHistorian (Royal Photographic Society Historical Group), Spring 1994, (104), 25–30
Patents for Panoramic Cameras registered in Austria in 1843 by Joseph Puchberger, and in France in 1844 by F. Martens. Diagrams from the patents are reproduced on pp. 27–30. Joseph Puchberger was a chemist from the city of Retz.  His Patent ( titled ‘Ellipsen Daguerreotyp’) for a swing lens camera producing a view of around 150 degrees was granted on 14 June 1843.  While the patent application is clearly that of Puchberger, another name of Wenzel Prokesch appears on the patent at the end of the description with the notation ‘optics and mechanics’.  Martens’ patent registered in France on 11 June 1845 for his ‘Megaskop’ camera also covered about 150 degrees, but he applied for a ‘Certificate of Addition’ on 23 July 1845 for two 360 degree cameras
PH94–7648    A visit with a Stanhope Doll
LONDON, Bobbi,
Photographist (Whittier, California), Winter 1994/5, (104), 4–5, 23
A Stanhope is a viewing lens with a microscopic collodion photographic image on glass attached.  In 1867 a French patent was obtained by Antoine Rochard for dolls and other toys fitted with Stanhopes. All the Stanhope dolls known to exist (the author knows at least seven) were made by Rochard from 1867 throughout the 1870s.  This article is devoted to an examination of one such doll at the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum in Rochester, New York State.  This large doll has thirty Stanhopes making up a necklace.  Diameter of most of the lenses in the doll is 7 mm, but some are either 4 or 5 mm, all much larger than most Stanhope lenses, which are generally 2 to 3 mm diameter.  The images seen through these Stanhopes are described.
PH94–7649    Stanhope — fotografisk — optisk — kuriositet
BERENDT, Flemming,
Objektiv (Dansk Fotohistorisk Selskab), September 1994, (65), 16–19
Provides a brief historical introduction of the development by J.B. Dancer and Dagron of microphotographs leading to the tiny Stanhope viewing lenses which can be found mounted on a variety of jewellery and other objects. Particular reference to a cigarette holder on which is found two Stanhopes, through which can be viewed two microphotographs, approximately 0.7 x 0.7 mm, of two nude young women, illustrated on pp.16, 18–19

PH94–7650    Vi bygger et camera obscura
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 38–43
On the construction of a camera obscura based on original designs used for drawing
PH94–7651    En Kamera–klassiker fra Dresden...og fra Sct. Petersborg
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 35–6, 36–7
Concerns two cameras of the 1930s: the German Reflex–Korelle and the Russian Sport
PH94–7652    “Mangefoto” kameraerne
LØVSTAD, Sigfred,
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 44–5
Two multiphotograph cameras in the Danmarks Fotomuseum. The first one constructed in the early 1930s for photographer Erhardt Jensen (1888–1973), produced nine separate frames by use of a lens mounted on a sliding panel.  The second camera made in 1946 produced four frames by use of a lens on a rotating plate.
PH94–7653    The Ultimate Hidden Camera: Equipment for a Master Spy
New England Journal of Photographic History, 1994, (142/3), 4–7
The equipment used by Russian KGB spy, Victor Novakov, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the camera being an F21 made by the Krasnogorsk factory in Moscow. ‘The camera design is brilliant...easy to hide behind a coat button.’
PH94–7654    An unhurried look at Single–Use [disposable] Camera[s]
New England Journal of Photographic History, 1994, (142/3), 12–23

Cyclope, Janvier – Decembre 1994, (13–18).
Only one issue (No. 12) of Cyclope (Katar Press, PB No.1, F–30140 Mailet, France) was published during 1993, but 1994 saw the production of issues No. 13 to 18, followed by No. 19 to 23 in 1995. This well produced French journal for camera collectors is highly recommended but by chance few of the 1994 issues are  within the present reach of the compiler. Therefore the articles of 1994 will be abstracted along with those of 1995 in the next photohistorica. Subjects covered in 1994 issues included the Gandolfi firm of camera makers (14) 6–11; 80 years of the Leica (17) 40–5, (18) 41–5; Part four of J–L Princelle’s ‘Naissance de 35mm’; on Condor, Exa ((15/16) 20–9), Flexaret, Kiev 66, Meopta, Rollei ((No.14) 34–43) and Semflex cameras. Also on Dagron and microphotography, Edison’s Kinetoscope and Chronophotography. 1994 issues were Janvier 1994 (No. 13); Mars 1994 (14); Juin–Août 1994 (15/16); Septembre 1994 (17); and Décembre 1994 (No. 18).


PH94–7656    Philosophy of Film History.
Anthology by eleven authors,
Film History (London), March 1994, 6 (1):
USAI, Paolo C., ‘The Philosophy of Film History’, 3–6; BOTTOMER, Stephen, ‘Out of this world:theory, fact, and film history’, 7– 25; LAGNY, Michèle, ‘Film history: or history expropriated’, 26–44; KLENOTIC, Jeffrey F., ‘The place of rhetoric in “new” film historiography: the discourse of corrective revisionism’, 45–58; BORDWELL, David, ‘The power of a research tradition: prospects for progress in the study of film style’, 59–79; SCHLÜPMANN, Heide, ‘Re–reading Nietzsche through Kracauer: towards a feminist perspective on film history’, 80–93; SALT, Barry, ‘...film in a lifeboat?’, 94–99; KUYPER, Eric de, ‘Anyone for an aesthetic of film history’, 100–9; ABEL, Richard,  ‘“Don’t know much about history”, or the (in)vested interests of doing cinema history’, 110–5; DENNIS, Jonathon, ‘Restoring history’, 116–27 ; TRUSKY, Tom, ‘Animal and other drives of an.amateur film historian’, 128–39.

PH94–7657    Exhibition [of Films],
Anthology of twelve articles,
Film History, June 1994, 6 (2):
KOSZARSKI, R.,‘Editorial: Exhibition’; ANON article reprint from Record and Guide, ‘New theatres a boon to real estate values’ ; WOAL, Linda, ‘When a dime could buy a dream’;  FULLER, Kathryn Helgesen, ‘You can have the Strand in your own town’ ; HARK, Ina Rae, ‘ The “Theater Man” and “The Girl in the box Office”’ ; MILLER, Mark S., ‘Helping exhibitors: Pressbooks at Warner Bros. in the late 1930s’; SKLAR, Robert, ‘Hub of the system’ ; HENDRYKOWSKA, Malgorzata., ‘Film journeys of the Krzeminski brothers, 1900–1908’ ; TOULMIN, Vanessa, ‘Telling the tale’ ; CONVENTS, Guido, ‘Motion picture exhibitors on Belgian fairgrounds’ ; VÉRONNEAU, Pierre, ‘The creation of a film culture by travelling exhibitors in rural Québec prior to World War II’ ; KEPLEY, Vance Jr., ‘Cinefication: Soviet film exhibition in the 1920s’.

PH94–7658    Exploitation Film
Anthology of six articles
Film History, September 1994, 6 (3):
LANGER, Mark, ‘Exploitation Film’, 291–2;  SCHAEFER, Eric, ‘Resisting refinement: the exploitation film and self–censorship’, 293–313;  BERENSTEIN, Rhona J., ‘White heroines and hearts of darkness: Race, gender and disguise in 1930s jungle films’, 314–39;  FEASTER, Felicia, ‘The woman on the table: Moral and medical discourse in the exploitation cinema’, 340–54;  RUBIN, Martin, ‘Make Love Make War: Cultural confusion and the biker film cycle’, 355–81;  HARTMANN, Jon, ‘The trope of Blaxploitation in critical responses to Sweetback’, 382–403

PH94–7659    Audiences and Fans
Anthology by seven authors
Film History, December 1994, 6 (4):
BELTON, John, ‘Audiences’, 419–421;  GUNNING, Tom, ‘The world as object lesson: Cinema Audiences, visual culture and the St. Louis world’s fair’, 422–44;  CURTIS, Scott, ‘The taste of a nation: Training the senses and sensibility of cinema audiences in imperial Germany’, 445–469;  COHEN, Mary Morley, ‘Forgotten audiences in the passion pits: Drive–in theatres and changing spectator practices in post–war America’, 470–86;  PAUL, William, ‘The K–mart audience at the mall movies’, 487–501;  REGESTER, Charlene, ‘Stepin Fetchit: The man, the image, and the African American press’, 502–21;  FISCHER, Lucy, ‘Enemies, a love story: Von Stroheim, women, and World War I’, 522–33

PH94–7660    Masks and faces
LIGHT, Alison,
Sight and Sound (London), November 1994, (11), 28–31
The surrealist photography of Angus McBean (b.1905) in the late 1930s and 1940s for stage and screen captured a peculiarly British sense of the dramatic, a mixture of reticence and flamboyance and self–irony which shaped the way in which audiences in theatres and cinemas perceived not only the stars, but also themselves.  Not surprisingly his methods and outlook did not cope well with the later more egalitarian post–war era of kitchen sink drama and cinema verite
PH94–7661    Strand and Sheeler’s Manhatta
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (1), 291
A reply to questions posed by the editors in an earlier issue of the journal (Spring 1994, 18 (3), 99) regarding Paul Strand and Charles Sheeler’ film Manhatta.  The writer concludes that they filmed the Morgan Building in New York early on 16 September 1920 before the building was damaged that day by a bombing on Wall Street.  Called New York the Magnicant when shown in New York (and titles badly added by the Rialto) in 1921 and Fumée de New York in Paris in 1923. Sometime Strand has not been credited as co–maker of the film which recalls Stieglitz’s warning to Strand in 1920 that ‘Paris will know the film as Sheeler’s work even if you are originally mentioned. It will be Sheeler and Strand, and then Sheeler.’
PH94–7662    Motion Pictures and the Chicago Connection
New England Journal of Photographic History, 1994, (142/3), 35–6
An outline of Chicago’s place in the history of early motion picture machines. Considers briefly, Kinetoscope parlours, and Chicago inventor, E.H. Amet’s ‘Magniscope’ projector, followed by information on the Essanay Film Manufacturing Co. of Chicago

PH94–7663    20 Seconds of History — The D–Day Photos [1944]
LANSDALE, Robert [interview with Ken BELL],
Photographic Canadiana, November/December 1994, 20 (3), p.3, p.15
A particular historic newsreel clip is often shown of Canadian assault troops moving from their landing craft onto beach on second world war D–day on 6 June 1944.  Ken Bell recalls the way this was achieved by Captain Colin McDougal  (who was in charge of photographers of the Canadian Film and Photo Unit) by use of Eyemo 35mm cine cameras fixed on brackets inside the landing craft and spring driven for  a maximum time of twenty seconds
PH94–7664    Color News Film, 1965–1975
NEMEYER, Sheldon,
SMPTE Journal, February 1994, 103 (2), 112–3
A former manager of the Newsfilm Equipment and Laboratory at NBC New York recalls the period in the laboratory when the shift was made in 1965 from use and processing of black and white film to that of colour


PH94–7665    Concrete evidence [National Monuments Record Centre, England]
British Journal of Photography, 8 June 1994, 141 (6977), 26–7
The Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England was founded in 1908 to survey and record England’s architectural, archaeological and Maritime heritage. The Commission’s business is documentation and a central component of this work is photographic.  Its new National Monuments Record Centre in Swindon opens July 1994 to provide state–of–the–art accommodation for the RCHME’s valuable photographic collection whose 6.5 million images include tens of thousands of nineteenth century glass plate negatives, 2–300 paper negatives dating from the 1850s and the entire RAF collection.  Fifteen photographers are engaged in field work, with two aerial phographers and seven working as printers add 30000 more pictures annually. Two photographers are interviewed
PH94–7666    Hidden Gems: Julia Margaret Cameron [collection at V & A Museum, London]
British Journal of Photography, 18 May 1994, 141 (6974), 15
While providing some thought on one of Julia Margaret Cameron’s photographs titled ‘St Agnes’, the curator of photographs at the Victoria and Albert Museum discusses how the museum acquired during the nineteenth century their large collection of her work
PH94–7667    Treasures of the Country Life Library, Part 3 [ to Part 6]
HALL, Michael,
Country Life, 1994, Vol. 188:  Part 3 — 14 April 1994, 188 (15), 78–81; Part 4 — 5 May 1994, (18), 100–3; Part 5 — 23 June 1994, (25), 130–1; Part 6 — 6 October 1994, (40), 80–3.
For parts 1 and 2 see PH93–7349.  The photographs are from the first half of the 20th century.  Part 3 deals with street scenes and buildings in London; Part 4 English towns and villages; Part 5 photographs of country houses that no longer exist;  Part 6 reproduces (with only a small amount of text) photographs of kitchens between 1921 and 1945.  For Part 7 see PH94–7788
PH94–7668    The Royal Photographic Society Collection
Photographic Journal, November 1994, 134 (10), 64 pp.
‘A companion Volume to Vol 134, No 10 of The Photographic Journal’, 64 pp. with 119 illustrations.  Introduction by Pam Roberts, 3–11: Illustrations (with informative captions) on pp.12–48;  Appendix I  ‘List of Major Collections of Work’, 49–55 [alphabetically lists eighty–two photographers and ten associations and groups]; Appendix II ‘Glossary of most commonly used photographic terms in chronological order’, 56–63 [short descriptions of sixteen processes with an illustration  of each one]
PH94– 7669  ‘one little room ... an everywhere’
Scottish Photography Bulletin, 1994, (2), 13–16
The author sets out the ideas that influenced him in making a selection of material from the Scottish Photography Archive for an exhibition (with the same title as the article) held at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in 1994.  Four illustrations
PH94–7670    The Tate debate [policy of London’s Tate Gallery regarding work by photographers]
MORRIS, Frances [interviewed],
Creative Camera,  Aug/Sept., 1994, (329), 10–13
An interview with Frances Morris, curator of photographs at this art museum in London, to consider criticism that they patronise artists who use photography but ignore conventional fine art photographers: ‘The Tate Gallery is committed to showing more photographs...Only in the last three years have trustees endorsed the idea that we should not make a distinction between photographs by “photographers” and photographs by “artists”.’  The interview is followed by three short responses from Fay GODWIN, Andrew CROSS and Paul WOMBELL
PH94–7671    The Naylor Museum
Photographica World, June 1993, (65), 32–3
PH94–7672    America’s Foremost [Naylor] Collection to Japan
Photographica (American Photographic Historical Society), October1994, 23 (4), 16
The Naylor Collection began in the 1950s. The private museum built under Thurman ‘Jack’ Naylor’s home received more than 1000 visitors annually.  The collection contained 31000 catalogued items, including 6500 camers, 15,000 images, 3000 books, from thirty countries. Now purchased by the Japanese government for a new museum to be built in Yokohama
PH94–7673    Japan Buys Foremost Private [Naylor] American Collection
PERSKY, Robert S.,
New England Journal of Photographic History, 1994, (142/3), 10
In the same issue of The Journal (pp. 25–8), Matthew Isenburg gives an illustrated account of the going–away party (almost 400 guests) of the collection held at Jack Naylor’s house and museum on 23 June 1994 shortly before the displays were removed

PH94–7674    New Camera Collection in Alberta Museum [Canada]
HUDSON, Brian,
Photographic Canadiana,  Jan/Feb., 1994, 19 (4), 7
The Musée Héritage Museum at St. Albert, Edmonton, Canada, has been presented with a fine camera collection.  Some 500 items, primarily Eastman Kodak and Zeiss–Ikon cameras were an unexpected gift

PH94–7675    Portfolio — A Glimpse into the Massachusetts Historical Society Daguerreotype Collection
STEELE, Chris,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 80–117
Thirty–eight illustrations make up this portfolio: Thirty–four (mainly full page) are of daguerreotypes in the Massachusetts collection. Of the other four illustrations the fig.2 on p. 82 has the most historical significance as it is an invitation to E. Everett to come to a display in Boston of daguerreotypes, this letter having been written in Boston on 4 March 1840 by François Gouraud.  Explanatory comments accompany each illustration, with a short text about the collection on p. 81

PH94–7676    De Nationale Fotocollectie in het Rijksmuseum
BOOM, Mattie,
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 179–180
The Netherlands national collection of nineteenth–century photography was in January 1994 transferred from the Netherlands Office for Fine Arts in The Hague to the Rijksmuseum.  Along with material already in the museum’s possession, the collection now holds around 70,000 items, including important representation of work by E.I. Asser, Willem Witsen and George H. Breitner.  (In Dutch)
PH94–7677    De collectie Grégoire [Leiden University]
Leids Kunsthistorisch jaarboek, 1994, (9), 345–66
On the Grégoire photographic collection, since 1953 in the printroom of the University of Leiden. A substantial part of the collection concerns Dutch works of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century
PH94–7678    Luftfotografiet: i Det kongelige Biblioteks samlinger.
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 25–31
A background history of Aerial Photography in Denmark in relation of the collections of Aerial photographs (especially the Sylvest Jensen Collection) at the Royal Library in Copenhagen. This article has been previously published in September 1993 in Magasin fra Det kongelige Bibiotek in September 1993 (see PH93–7330).  See also a related item, ‘Set fra luften — Sylvest Jensen og den danske bondegård’ by Henrik DUPONT, in the previous issue of Objektiv, September 1994, (65), 43–4
PH94–7679    Enrichissements récents de collection [Musée de la Photographie Charleroi, Belgigue]
Photographie Ouverte (Revue du Musée de la Photographie, Charleroi), Avril/Mai 1994, (91), [pp. 10–12]
Seven particular recent donations to the museum at Charleroi are worthy of note.  A short description of the donation and information on the seven photographers is provided:  Antoon Dries (né 1910);  Henri Goldstein (né 1920);  Adolphe Lacomblé (1857–1935);  Jean–Jacques Louvigny (1947–1988);  Albert Van Ommeslaghe (1890–1976);  Jean–Pol Stercq (né 1943);  Serge Vandercam (né à Copenhague en 1924)

PH94–7680    ‘Dem Trachtenmuseum zu Berlin gewidmet’ Die Anfänge der Fotosammlung des Museums für Volkskunde Berlin
ZIEHE, Irene,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (52), 15–26
A history of the photograph collection of the Folklore Museum in Berlin which now contains abut 80000 items. The museum was founded on 27 October 1889 as ‘The Museum of German Traditional Costumes and Household Products.’
PH94–7681    Das Bildarchiv Foto Maburg im Kunstgeschichtlichen Institut de Philipps –Universität Marburg und die Erfassung von Baudenkmälern in der ehemligen DDR
WALBE, Brigitte,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (53), 47–54
Founded in 1913, for decades the task of this archive was to provide high quality photographic reproductions of European works of fine art and architecture. Today it has over 1.2 million negatives at its disposal.  In 1961 these archives were designated  as the Federal German Centre for Art
History Documentation.  In the early 1990s a project has been undertaken jointly with the German Photothèque in Dresden for the photographic documentation of architectural monuments in the former GDR

PH94–7682    Musée National des Monuments Français
DANIEL, Malcolm,
History of Photography, Summer 1994, 18 (2), 197
The photographic collection at the Musée National des Monuments Français in the Palais de Chaillot, Paris, has long been in storage. This short report states the collection is being revitalized and that an important cache of early French photographs, including work by Le Gray, Le Secq, and Baldus from their 1851 missions héliographiques had recently been unearthed

PH94–7683    Das Schweizerische Kameramuseum in Vevey
MFM Fototechnik, Juni 1994, 42 (6), 20–1
PH94–7684    Stumme Zeugen. Fotoarchiv des deutschen Filmmuseums,
NAGEL, Josef,
Film—Dienst (Köln), 1994, 47 (21), 9–11
Short survey of the holdings of the German film archive in Frankfurt am Main.
PH94– 7685    L’Egitto dei fotografi
Zoom (Milano), 1994, (131), 46–9
Presentazione della mostra dedicata all fotografi in Egitto nel 19 secolo, realizzata dal gallerista ed antiquario Giuseppe Vanzella di Treviso, con alcune delle immagini d’epoca provenienti dalla sua collezione.  Egli ha infatti costituto in meno di dieci anni una interessante collezione fotographica di oltre 16000 stampe, dedicata al 19 secolo ed in particolare italiano

PH94–7686    Le Istituzioni e la fotografia l’Archivio Fotografico Comunale [Roma]
COEN, Emanuele,
F & D — Foto & Dintori, Giugno 1994, (2),  4–6
Un viaggio all’interno di alcune delle più importanti Istituzioni italiane che si occupano di raccogliere e conservare la fofographia storica. Tra queste l’Archivio Fotografico Comunale di Roma, dove si trovano conservati alcuni importanti fondi fotografici, tra i quali ricordiamo parte dei negativi dell’archivio di G. E. Chauffourier, fotografo attivo a Roma nella seconda metà dell’Ottocento
PH94–7687    La collezione di fotografie del Cabinet des Estampes della Biblioteca Nazionale de Parigi
LEMAGNY, Jean Claude,
Gente di Fotografia (Palermo), Autunno 1994, 1 (2), 4–5
PH94–7688    Acquistions of the Art Museum [Princeton Univ] 1993
Record of The Art Museum, Princeton University, 1994, 53 (1), 70–8
A miscellaneous collection of photographs acquired during 1993 includes seven by Garry Winogrand (1928–1984), thirteen by Clarence John Laughlin (1905–1985), and twelve by Oscar G. Rejlander (1813–1875)
PH94–7689    Acquisitions [George Eastman House]. The Ford Motor Company Collection.
FULTON, Marianne,
Image, spring/summer 1994, 37 (1–2), 37–57.
Exhibition held from September 1994 to January 1995 of a selection of prints purchased by GEH using their Ford Motor Company Fund, with fifteen illustrations and List of purchases between 1984 and 1993
PH94–7690    Souvenirs of Asia
STAPP, William F.,  /  BISHOP, Elizabeth,
Image, Fall/Winter 1994, 37 (3–4), 3–53 with 32 illustrations.
An exhibition ‘Souvenirs of Asia’ featured a selection of 110 photographs taken throughout Asia during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Data on the photographs, which are all in the George Eastman House collections at  Rochester, NY, USA, is provided in an anon ‘Exhibition Checklist'  pp.45–53, with ‘biographies of Photographers’ by Elizabeth Bishop on pp. 39–44.  William Stapp on pp. 3–37 provides a valuable overview essay on ‘Photography in the Far East, 1840–1920.’   The exhibition was held at the Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Köln, in September 1994 and an introductory text in German with 13 illustrations appeared in Das Kodak Kulturprogramm zur photokina 1994 (redaktion, Karl Steinorth), 100–7
PH94–7691    Rare images of the Orient
NORMAN, Geraldine,
Independent on Sunday (London), 16 October 1994, Sunday review pages 78–9.
H. Kwan Lau was only 13 years old in Hong Kong in 1953 when he started to collect 19th century photographs of China and Japan.  Six years later he left to become a architect in America, later travelling the world constantly extending his collection.  This article provides a concise overview of his collecting activities and notes some of the choice examples in the collection of 2000 items before its sale at Christie’s of London at end of October 1994

PH94–7692    Windows of Light: A Bibliography of the Serials Literature within the Gernsheim & Photography Collections of the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center,
Library Chronicle of The University of Texas at Austin, 1994, 24 (3/4), 5–411.
Introductory essay by Flukinger on pp. 7–37.  Catalogue: ‘Photography Retrospective Serials Holdings’, 39–368, ‘Current Photography Serials Holdings Through December 1993’, 371–410.  Contains sixty–nine illustrations of pleasant and choice items from the pages of some of the holdings at the Ranson Centre. In his introductory essay, Roy Flukinger (Curator of Photography at the Center) discusses the diversity and scholarly value, and indeed the pleasure, obtained from periodical literature. Sometimes when listing periodicals originally in the Gernsheim Collection, relevant remarks are quoted from the Gernsheims’ research notes ‘made in the same distinctive hand’ in the Gray folders used by the Gernsheims, but  does not specify if the hand was that of Helmut or Alison Gernsheim.

PH94–7693    The Washington Post photo research center,
WORCHEL, Harris,
Popular Culture in Libraries (Binghampton,USA), 1993, 1 (1), 101–126

PH94–7694    Peter A. Juley & Son, documenting the Art of America
STAHL, Joan,
American Art Review, April/May 1994, 6 (2), 158–65, 167
A collection of negatives and photographs of works of art taken between 1896 and 1975 by the New York photographic firm of Juley has recently been presented to the National Museum of American Art, Washington. This article provides an outline of the career of Peter Juley and his son Paul and their involvement in contemporary artistic circles

PH94–7695    National Gallery of Art [Washington]: Photographic Archives’ List of Holdings
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (2), 135–9
The Holdings List of this photographic archive is updated semi–annually and is availble free of charge.  For a copy write to The Photographic Archives, National Gallery of Art, 4th Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20565, USA

PH94–7696    ‘Issues in Electronic Imaging’
Anthology of seven articles,
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (1), 1–78
KESSLER, Benjamin R., ‘Electronic Images in Visual Resources Collections: Some Strategic Questions’, 1–10;  ESTER, Michael, ‘Digital Images in the context of Visual Collections and scholarship’, 11–24;  STAM, Deirdre C., ‘Pondering Pixeled Pictures: Research directions in the digital imaging of art objects’, 25–39;  WYATT, Victoria, and McLEAN, Ged, ‘Imaging Databases in research and teaching: Global perspectives and new research technologies’, 41–8;  WEINSTEIN, William, ‘Designing an Image Database: a Holistic approach’, 49–55;  WALLACE, Jim, ‘Project Chapman: The direct delivery of digital Smithsonian Images via the Internet’, 57–60;  WEBSTER, Margaret, ‘ [review of ] “The Future of Memories”: the Kodak Photo CD System’, 71–8

PH94–7697    Towards The Electronic Kunst und Wunderkammer: spinning on the European Network EMN
LIPP, Achim,
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (2), 101–8
The European Museum Network is an EEC pilot project.  Eight museums (in Lisbon, Madrid, Paris, The Hague, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Copenhagen and Hamburg) and four technical partners have been involved from 1989 to 1992 in developing an interactive multimedia computer system to provide information to museum visitors.  Has two specific programs — the multimedia data import program MDA, and the EMN visitor program
PH94–7698    Photography Database [GEH and HRC] available on Internet
ESKIND, Andrew,
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (2), 119–27
A database has been developed at George Eastman House and now resides at the University of Texas where Internet access is better provided.  It catalogues the GEH Collection and the Harry Ranson Humanities Research Centre at University of Texas.  This account of the database by one of the project directors provides examples of typical log–in sessions and search methods.  Internet address: hrhrc.cc.utexas.edu
PH94–7699    Project Updates: ICONCLASS
Iconclass research and development Group [Utrecht University],
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (2), 129–33
The iconclass bibliography was originally printed in seven volumes along with seven system volumes and three volumes of Alphabetical Indexes.  The present release of an electronic version ICONCLASS Browser and Bibliography offers all the information of those seventeen printed volumes, containing 40000 bibliographic entries in the field of cultural history and iconography.  Needs 30 Mb of disk space and Windows version 3
PH94–7700    AVIADOR Photography
PARKS, Janet,
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (4), 317–31
Since its inception in 1983, the project AVIADOR (Avery Vidiodisc Index of Architecturial Drawings on RLIN), has attracted attention from the library and museum communities. In addition to the interest in the cataloguing procedures developed in this project, many of the photographic procedures, techniques, and standards are pertinent to those involved in the photography of large–scale collections. The purposes of this paper is to explain in detail the working methods
PH94–7701    Threading the Needle: Helping Patrons find their way in a Photographic Archives haystack
Visual Resources, 1994, 10 (3), 251–63
‘If we, as archivists, want to develop effective tools to link patrons and photographs that match their research needs, we need to consider the kinds of patrons we are serving and the kinds of questions they ask.’  Pearce–Moses provides some thoughts on implementing a reference strategy, as  ‘the challenges and special problems of reference service to researchers have rarely received detailed consideration’.
PH94–7702    Re: Fair Use [Copyright and estate of Diane Arbus]
HOFFMAN, Barbara, and SILVER, Larry,
October (MIT Press), Winter 1994, (67), 108–9
A letter commenting on copyright restrictions imposed by the estate of Diane Arbus.  Quotes section 107 of 1976 Copyright Act and a ruling of Judge Laval in US District Court, South District, New York
PH94–7703    [Five reports on the present status of Photographic Collectors and Photographic Galleries, and the current  market in photographica in America, England and Italy]
BUCKLAND, Christine, et al
Art Newspaper (International edition, London), November 1994, (24), 21–22, 25
BUCKLAND, Christine, ‘UK Thriving, despite itself — Few Collectors but Innovative galleries’, 21;  FALZONE DEL BARBARÒ, Michele, ‘Collecting in Italy: the triumph of subject over style — Italian Collectors still concentrate almost exclusively on illustration or Italian genre photography’, 21;  ZANNIER, Italo, ‘Italy. Still down in the artistic hierarchy — Photography remains under appreciated in Italy’, 22;  HARDY, Ellen, ‘US. Real Art, big business. The subject has no status problem’, 22;  HALPERT , Peter Hay, ‘New York. Real tears for Man Ray: This season’s photography sales failed to live up to expectations’, 25 [this last report deals with market trends during 1993 to 1994 at the three major auction houses in New York]
PH94–7704    Shutterbugs
GORVY, Brett,
Antique Collector, [December 1993–] January 1994, 65 (1), 64–9,
Present resilience of the market in 20th century photography. Suggests which photographers are collectable and the prices their photographs are now commanding.

colour photography

PH94–7705    Early Colour and the Autochrome,
Anthology of ten articles,
History of Photography, Summer 1994, 18 (2), 111–153
ISLER–DE JONGH, Ariane, ‘The Origins of Colour Photography: Scientific Technical and Artistic Interactions’, 111–9;  LAVéDRIN, Bertrand, and GANDOLFO, Jean–Paul, ‘The Autochrome Process, From

Concept to Prototype’, 120–28;  STEIN, Sally, ‘Autochromes without Apologies: Heinrich Kühn’s Experiments with the Mechanical Palette’, 129–33;  MARDER, William and Estelle, ‘Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837–1920)’, 134–9;  WOOD, John, The Art of the Autochome: A Supplemental Bibliography’, 140–2;  BOULOUCH, Nathalie, ‘The Documentary Use of the Autochrome in France’, 143–5;  TUGGLE, Catherine T., ‘Eduard Steichen and the Autochrome, 1907–1909,145–7; JAMES, Anne Clark, ‘Antonin Personnaz, Art Collector and Autochrome Pioneer’, 147–150;  NEALE, Shirley, ‘Olive Edis. Autochromist’, 150–3.    In a later issue of  History of Photography (Autumn 1995, 19 (3), 270–1) Ariane Isler–de Jongh made some corrections to above article by W. and E Marder with some more information on Ducos du Hauron and Charles Gros

PH94–7706    National Geographic Society Autochromes
WENTZEL, Volkmar,
History of Photography, Summer 1994, 18 (2), 195
In 1909 Admiral Peary reached the north pole. $1000 dollars had been granted to this expedition by the American National Geographic Society and they now hold 11 Lumière autochromes, faded and damaged by moisture, depicting Peary’s ship frozen in ice pack.  These images were not published, and the first colour to appear in the National Geographic Magazine was a 24–page series of scenes hand–tinted by a Japanese artist.  The first autochrome was printed in the National Geographic in July 1914, but hand tinted photographs continued to appear.  However the first fully fledged series of Geographic Magazine colour illustrations (including twenty three autochromes) began in April 1916 and from then until 1938 the National Geographic published 2355 autochromes
PH94–7707    The Joly and McDonough Colour Processes
COONAN, Stephen,
History of Photography, Summer 1994, 18 (2), 195–6
Discusses the fate of the additive line screen process patented by John Joly of Dublin in July 1894, and the American James McDonough’s patents obtained in USA and UK in 1892.  McDonough proposed a photosensitive plate with an integral pattern of dyed particles distributed over it — this defines the autochrome plate, but no practical work emerged from the process prior to that of the Lumière brothers
PH94–7708    The Lumières and colour photography
POPPLE, Simon,
Photographica World, March 1994, (69), 10–12
Traces the origins of colour photography and the development of the autochrome process
PH94–7709    Some Patents of Note: Early Coloring Patents
JORDAN, Doug, [and BATY, Laurie],
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 72–9

The text (compiled from published sources by D. Jordan) of six Patents for colouring daguerreotypes obtained in America between 1842 and 1846.  With introductory notes on pp.73–4 by the editor, Laurie Baty, on the records of the Patent Office  held in the National Archives in Washington



PH94–7710    Technical treatment and preservation of the photographic collection of the Brazilian National Library
IFLA Journal (München), 1994, 20, 312–320.
PH94–7711    The Positive Identification of 19th–century Photographic Processes
BERRY, James,
Scottish Photography Bulletin, 1994, (1), 12–15
Technical details and ‘tell–tale signs’ to help identification of process, together with brief conservation treatments.  Processes include daguerreotype, calotype, salted–paper, albumen, ambrotype, tintype, carbon, platinum and gelatin–silver
PH94–7712    Image Analysis and the Documentation of the Condition of Daguerreoypes
ARNEY, J. S., and MAURER, J. M.,
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, March/April 1994, 38 (2), 145–53
A diagnostic technique is being developed for expressing the condition and degradation of daguerreotypes.  It makes use of the unique goniometric characteristics of daguerreotype images in that they appear in negative or positive form according to the conditions of illumination and viewing.  CCD camera positive and negative images of a daguerreotype are analyzed by a process of digital image analysis known as ‘two–dimensional image segmentation’, and histograms are produced showing the frequency of  the reflectance values of individual pixels.  At the present stage of development the technique can only supplement rather than replace the individual professional judgement of the museum curator
PH94–7713    Le pellicole in acetato di cellulosa. Cause ed effetti del degrado
VLAHOV, Riccardo,
AFT: Rivista de storia e Fotografia (Prato), Giugno 1994, (19), 10–11
PH94–7714    Ohne Archivieren ist die Arbeit sinnlos
MFM Fototechnik, Juli 1994, 42 (7), 30–1
PH94–7715    Will the Digital Image change curatorial Practice?
BRUCE, Roger,
Image, Spring/Summer 1994, 37 (1–2), 17–25.


PH94–7716     Agfa: Oversættelse og bearbejdelse
Objektiv (Dansk Fotohistorisk Selskab), April 1994, (64), 4–19;  September 1994, (65), 4–9;  December 1994, (67), 4–11;  April 1995, (68), 4–11.   See also a note by Hans BONNESEN on ‘Agfa: set fra Danmark’ in Objektiv, September 1995, (69), 26–8.
Samtidig fyldte den store tyske foto–koncern Agfa 100 år. I den anledning er denne beretning blevet til under redaktion af Matthias–Josef Zimmermann. Materialet stammer fra Bayers 100 års jubilæumsskrfit i 1963 og fra Agfa Magazine. Der er tale om et stykke spændende industrihistorie med mange oplysinger om Pionerer, firmafusioner, og fotografiske landvindinger.  Men netop fordi der er tale om en historie skrevet af firmaet selv, er selvkritikken ikke sat i højsædet, og der bliver kun lejlighedsvis draget relevante sammenligninger til andre firmaers produkter.  / A history of Agfa over one hundred years.

PH94–7717    Bilder von Krupp [Anthology of articles on the photographs in the archiv of the German manufacturer Alfred Krupp AG, Essen]
TENFELDE, Klaus, et. al [fourteen authors]., in
Bilder von Krupp. Fotografie und Geschichte im Industriezeitalter, edited by Klaus Tenfelde.  München: 1994, 320pp.
An anthology of articles covering the history of the graphic & photographic departement of the Alfred Krupp AG, Essen, between 1861 and 1914, one of the most important steel manufactureres in Germany. The reproductions are all from the Krupp–Archiv which houses more than 120.000 photographs. Discussions on methodology, images of industry, and family portraits greatly broaden the scope of the anthology providing a major attempt by German historians to use photographs as sources. Fifteen articles: TENFELDE, Klaus, Einleitung, 9–13; TENFELDE, Klaus, Krupp – Aufstieg eines Weltkonzerns, 13–40; DEWITZ, Bodo von, “Bilder sind nicht teuer und ich werde Quantitäten davon machen lassen!” Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Graphischen Anstalt, 41–66; LÜDTKE, Alf, Gesichter der Belegschaft. Porträts der Arbeit, 67–88; WENGENROTH, Ulrich, Die Fotografie als Quelle der Arbeits– und Technikgeschichte, 89–104; REIF, Heinz, “Wohlergehen der Arbeiter und häusliches Glück” – Das Werksleben jenseits der Fabrik in der Fotografie bei Krupp, 105–122; BORSDORF, Ulrich und SCHNEIDER, Siegrid, Ein gewaltiger Betrieb: Fabrik und Stadt auf den Kruppschen Fotografien, 123–158; FÖHL, Axel, Zum Innenleben deutscher Fabriken –Industriearchitektur und sozialer Kontext bei Krupp, 159–180; POGGE VON STRANDMANN, Hartmut, Krupp in der Politik, 181–201; GALL, Lothar, Bürgerliche Repräsentationskultur und familiäre Intimität, 203–214; HARTEWIG, Karin, Der sentimentalische Blick. Familienfotografien im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, 215–240; HERZ, Rudolf, Gesammelte Fotografien und fotografierte Erinnerungen. Eine Geschichte des Fotoalbums an Beispielen aus dem Krupp–Archiv, 241–268; HANNIG, Jürgen, Fotografien als historische Quelle, 269–288; MATZ, Reinhard, Werksfotografie – Ein Versuch über den kollektiven Blick, 289–304; TENFELDE, Klaus, Geschichte und Fotografie bei Krupp, 305–320.

PH94–7718    Die Kameraindustrie in beiden Teilen Deutschlands
JEHMLICH, Gerhard,
MFM Fototechnik, Januar 1994, 42 (1), 9–13; Februar 1994, 42 (2), 26–30; März 1994, 42 (3), 15–19
PH94–7719    Über fünf Jahrzehnte im Dienst der Berufsfotografie: die Geschichte der Foba AG
MFM Fototechnik, Juni 1994, 42 (6), 25
Der Foba AG reicht in das Jahr 1939 zurück, als die Schweiz zur Insel des Kriegischen Europas wurde und keine Fotogeräte mehr aus dem Ausland importiert werden Konnten

PH94–7720    Plastic by the Millions: The Herbert George and Imperial Camera Companies
LONDON, Ralph,
Photographist (Whittier, California), Winter 1994/5, (104), 8–18
From 1940 to 1961 the Chicago based Herbert George company produced and sold millions of inexpensive rollfilm cameras in a amazing number of models, including the Donald Duck 127 camera in 1946. The company became the Imperial Camera Corporation , and by 1973 all the shares were owned by Cenco Medical Industries . This article provides information about the company and on the cameras (listed on pp.13–17)


PH94–7721 New Zealand Photographic Publications — Part 3 Monographs and other Publication Illustrated with Photographs 1890–1960
MAIN, Bill,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, May 1994, (15), 16–18
Alphabetically listed by authorship of 100 illustrated works published in New Zealand

PH94–7722 The Voyage of Captain Lucas and the Daguerreotype to Sydney
WOOD, R. Derek,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, August 1994, (16), 3–7
An account of the voyage of L’Oriental under Augustin Lucas after leaving France on 1 October 1839 until being wrecked on 23 June 1840 near Valparaiso, Chile, and of the activities of the trading ship Justine in the Pacific, under the captaincy of François Lucas, younger brother of Augustin.  Demonstrates the way the use of the daguerreotype diffused from France in 1839, with the first daguerreotypes being taken by Louis Comte in South America (at Rio de Janeiro 17 January 1840 and Montevideo 29 February 1840) and the way this links up with the first use of a daguerreotype camera in Sydney, Australia, on 13 May 1841.  This article has since been reprinted, very slightly revised, in The Daguerreian Annual 1995, 51–7

PH94–7723 Pioneers of Photography in Belgium
JOSEPH, Steven F.,
PhotoHistorian, Spring 1994, (104), 16–24 with 7 illustrations on back cover [31–32]
A version in English of an essay first published in French as opening chapter of Pour une histoire de la photographie en Belgique, sous la direction Georges Vercheval, Musée de la photographie à Charleroi 1993, pp. 13–23, with the addition (on pp. 11–13) of a shortened version of S.F. Joseph and T. Schwilden’s article on ‘News Photography in the News’ in Shadow  and Substance: Essays on the History of Photography, In Honor of Heinz K. Henisch, edited by K. Collins, Amorphous Institute Press: Bloomfield Hills, USA 1990, 319–323

PH94–7724 First Photographers who worked in Guatemala [from 1843 to 1868]
DEL CID F., Enrique,
Daguerreian Annual 1994, 34–45
Translated by David Haynes and Birgitta Riera into English from the original article in Spanish in El Imparcial (Guatemala City), 12 September 1962, pp. 11,13; 17 September 1962, pp. 11, 15.
  Provides a list  in chronological order, from information published by the newspapers at the time, of  thirty–three photographers (both local born and foreign) who practised in Guatemala between 1843 and 1868, including facts about partnerships they established and closed, the opening and closing dates of businesses.  Most information is given, with text of some of their advertisements, on Frenchman Leon de Pontelle active 1843–4;  Emilio Herbruger (briefly in 1846, returning 1866; and especially detailed  (pp.38–41) on the most significant studio in Guatemala at the time, of the American Guillermo [William] Fitz–Gibbon from 1852, his later partner Buchanan, as well as his brother J.H. Fitz–Gibbon.

PH94–7725    Daguerre og Danmark! [1. Text of Jules Janin’s first report in January 1839 on the daguerreotype; 2. Text of  lecture in February 1839 by H.C. Ørsted]
BERENDT, Flemming,
Objektiv (Dansk Fotohistorisk Selskab), April 1994, (64), 28–34; 40–5
The editor, Flemming Berendt, provides appropriate illustrations and a short introduction to the first two reports about the daguerreotype to appear in Denmark in 1839.  The text as translated in 1839 into Danish is provided (on pp. 28–31, 34) of the first report by the French journalist Jules Janin on the daguerreotype originally published in Paris in January 1839.  Secondly, on pp. 40–45, is the text of a lecture by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted.  This lecture, reporting on news about Daguerre’s discovery that Ørsted had received from Paris (he himself had no first hand knowledge) was published in Søndagen, a Sunday edition of the newspaper Dagen, 24 Februar 1839, Nr. 8
PH94–7726 The model’s unwashed feet: French photography in the 1850s
in Artistic Relations: literature and the visual arts in nineteenth century France, edited by Peter Collier and Robert Lethbridge, New Haven: Yale University Press 1994, 130–43
Emphasises the significance of realism for the early years of photography
PH94–7727 Industriebilder — Bilder der Industriearbeit? Industrie– und Arbeiterphotographie von der Jahrhundertwende bis in die 1930er Jahre,
Historische Anthropologie, 1993, (1), 394–430.
Programmatic article on the photography of labour highlighting the ambivalent meaning of  ‘quality’ which was used by Nazi propaganda for their own purpose but had a different meaning for many workers emphasizing their independence.
PH94–7728 Subjektive Ansichten durch das Objektiv.  Die Skulpturen Arno Brekers in der Fotografie des deutschen Faschismus
BRESSA, Birgit,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (51), 39–50
This article ‘Subjective views through the lens’ in taking an example of the sculptures of Arno Breker (1900–1991) wishes to show that these works of art in the Third Reich were created mainly with a view to their use for propaganda purposes .  Breker’s elaboration of the details of his sculpture was undertaken for their effectiveness in photographic reproduction.  In order to make ideological concepts credible, a media reality was constructed.  It was only with the help of photographic reproduction and the technical reproducibility of art works that it became possible to put art at the service of the state propaganda of German Fascism
PH94–7729 ‘Photographischer Alpdruck’ oder politische Fotomontage?  Karl Kraus, Kurt Tucholsky und die satirischen Möglichkeiten der Fotografie
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (52), 41–57
This essay titled  ‘ “Photographic Nightmare” or Political Photomontage?: Karl Kraus, Kurt Tucholsky and the satirical potential of photography’,  examines the historical and aesthetic significance of a selection of photographs from the magazines Die Fackel and Die Letzten Tage der Menschheit, edited by Karl Kraus, in comparision with pictorial commentaries by Kurt Tucholsky.  A ‘Photo Compostion’ by Kraus published in 1911 surely represents the beginning of the history of satirical photomontage.  Although Tucholsky recognised the political potential of photography, it was only later in cooperation with John Heartfield that the satire in his work came close to the piercing ideological criticism which Kraus mastered in his pictorial quotations
PH94–7730 Pressfotografie. IV. Die Entwicklung des Fotorechts und der Handel mit der Bildnachricht
WEISE, Bernd,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (52), 27–40
‘The emergence of photographic rights and trade in news pictures’. As a result of new press picture printing techniques after 1883, photographers lost part of their monopoly, but new commercial possibilities arose for photographs to be used in a news  context.  A law of 1876 protecting photographs from unauthorised reproduction was no longer adequate, but not until 1907 was a copyright law passed in Germany giving photographers all rights to commercial exploitation of their work. A publishing law which  might have clarified the business relationship between photographer and publisher had been discussed in 1903, but never became law.  As a result, problems relating to photographic rights became more and more widespread
PH94–7731 Das Münchner DaguerreTriptychon. Ein Protokoll zur Geschichte seiner Präsentation, Aufbewahrung und Restaurierung
POHLMANN, Ulrich, und SCHMIDT, Marjen,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (52), 3–13
‘The Daguerre Triptych in Munich: a history of its presentation, storage and restoration’.  L.J.M. Daguerre sent this tryptych to the Bavaian King Ludwig I  in Munich in October 1839.  Its particular fame is due to the fact that it represents the first time a person was successfully fixed by a photographic image.  Two of the images show a view of the Boulevard du Temple in Paris at different times of the day, and a still life of replicas of ancient statues.  From 1874 to 1939 this triptych was in the Bayerische Nationalmuseum.  In 1972 unsuccessful attempts were undertaken to chemically restore all the plates and totally destroyed the surfaces.  With the help of reproductions made in 1936 or 1937, facsimiles of these daguerreotypes were created in 1979.
PH94–7732 Foto, Propaganda, Heimat
HAUS, Andreas,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (53), 3–14
‘Photograph, propaganda, homeland’ is a study of the German movement for the protection of the homeland at the beginning of the twentieth century. One particularly modern aspect was its inovative means of communicating, using propaganda–pictorial argumentation which drew on photographs.  It was a method used by P. Schultze–Naumburg in his Kulturarbeiten and in 1900 in his Kunstwart.  But here the medium of photography, which in the nineteenth century was the unquestioned guarantor of objective incorruptibility, runs into a dilemma. Played off between each other in the movement’s propaganda was the aesthetic opposition between a ‘pictoresque’ and a ‘documentary’ reading of photographs.
PH94–7733 ‘Image Reporter’
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 288–9
In May 1936 the Nazi government in Germany issued a linguistic prescription (Sprachregelung) — ‘It is declared that the denomination “press photographer” is not to be used anymore, the name is “image reporter” [Bildberichterstatter].’ Such prescriptions were the basic source of propaganda strategies as given by the Ministry of People’s Enlightment and Propaganda.  Therefore photography was to be renamed more exactly in its function of bearing messages without showing one’s own opinion.  There was no point in forbidding the word photography but by reducing its influencial scale to mere craftsmanship, its semantic context was taken out of the region of both art and mass communcation
PH94–7734 Gewollter Erinnerungswert oder antiquarische Historie. Über die Frage, was der Begriff ‘Erinnerung’ in der Fotografie – auch – zu bedeuten vermag
WOLF, Herta,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (54), 69–77
A discourse on ‘Intended Memorable Value or Antiquarian History: What the term “Memory” may – also – mean in photography.’  One of the powers inherent in the medium of photography is its ability to embalm time, investing the past with eternal duration.  Thus any use of photography to ‘record’ architectural conditions always runs the risk of being dovetailed with historicised (romantic or intuitive) concepts of history.  Such a dovetailing could be countered by an appoach to history (both to photography and to protection of historic monuments) which is based on a critical relationship to the present, the present being regarded as something which forms itself through change, even though changing the notion of what can be, or ought to be remembered

The following eight items, PH94–7735 to 7742, are the historical articles in a special double issue of the journal FOTOGESCHICHTE (Jonas Verlag: Marburg), 1994/5, 14/15 (Heft 54/55) devoted to ‘Lager, Gefängnis, Museum: Fotografie und industrieller Massenmord’ (Camp, prison, museum. Photography and industrial mass murder) providing a history of photography of the German concentration camps from 1933 until the present day.

PH94–7735 Fotografierte Lager. Überlegungen zu einer Fotogeschichte deutscher Konzentrationslager,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (54), 3–20
‘Photographs of the Camps: Thoughts on a photographic history of the German Concentration Camps’ considers the role of photography at the various stages of the camps from 1933 upto today. From the time the Nazis came to power, such camps existed: they were present in the form of photographs in numerous official articles in the censored press in Germany. Even reports in the foreign press were rather euphemistic. However, at the beginning of the war, the foreign press became more unambiguous in their  reactions, but in the areas occupied by the Wehrmacht these reports were reproached as propaganda lies.  Photographs were taken in the camps by opposition movements, although it was forbidded, and also by SS men, for whom it was sometimes permitted and sometimes forbidden. Only few photographs exist of the next phase (Liberation) when the allies kept Nazi criminals imprisoned. The latest phase is a museum–like treatment of the camps, a phenomenon which even generates its own type of photography from tourist snaps to more ambitious artistic treatment.

PH94–7736 Architektur zur ‘Vernichtung durch Arbeit’. Das Album der ‘Bauleitung d. Waffen–SS u. Polizei K. L. Auschwitz’
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (54), 31–44
‘Architecture for “Destruction through Work”: The Album of the Supervisory engineering section of the armed divisions of the SS and the police in the concentration camp at Auschitz.’    The main supervisory engineering section of the armed division of the SS at Auschwitz even had its own photo–laboratory.  The album was obviously intended for official use.  The unsophisticated architectural photographs illustrate individual phases of construction work, mostly no people are seen.  The impression communicated is that of a concentration camp corresponding to the 1929 Geneva Convention of the treatment of war prisioners.  Neither the prisoners’ inhuman working conditions during construction nor later use of the camp are recognisable

PH94–7737    ‘Neue Höhlenmenschen’. Eine von KZ–Häftlingen errichte unterirdische Rüstungsfabrik bie Melk an der Donau, fotografiert von Michael Wrobel
PERZ, Bertrand,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (54), 45–56
‘ “New Cave men”: an underground factory constructed by concentration camp prisoners near Melk on the Danube. Photographed by Michael Wrobe.’   From April 1944 onwards, 15000 concentration camp prisoners had to construct an underground arms factory for the company Steyr–Daimler–Puch AG.  Within one year, 5000 prisioners died as a result of malnutrition and brutal treatment. The Viennese artist and photographer Michael Wrobel, who since the mid 1960s has been occupied with photographing the architectural remains of National Socialism, took these photographs of the remains of this underground site near Melk in 1986 and 1987.
PH94–7738    Beim Sichten des fotografischen Nachlasses. Privatfotos in Auschwitz
BRINK, Cornelia,
Fotogeschichte, 1995, 15 (55), 3–10
‘On viewing the photographs left behind: Private Photographs in Auschwitz..’   About 2400 private photographs are preserved in the Municipal Museum Auschwitz, for the most part photographs which the men, women and children had with them on arrival at the camps.  This essay deals with the individual and public utilisation of these photographs.  In what particular way is the gaze which falls on these photographs governed by their content, their mode of presentation and their expoitation as a medium?  To speak of the photographs as ‘traces of the present’ seems to have a special power of persuasion.  The private photographs of these Nazi victims seem to make the horror and suffering more easily imaginable, while at the same time placing it at a distance
PH94–7739    2400 Fotografien, gefunden in Birkenau
LOEWY, Hanno,
Fotogeschichte, 1995, 15 (55), 11–18
In the archives of the museum now established at Aushwitz–Birkenau are 2400 photographs which had been taken from the deportees before they were murdered in the gas chambers.  The photographs show the world from which those deportees were torn, their relatives and friends, and often presumably themselves.  Most of the people shown are unknown.  The significance the photographs found on the deportees had for them is frequently documented in the literature of suvivors.  For those murdered, taking the photographs with them to the camps was a last attempt to preserve their identity. And when we look at the photographs today, they remind us above all of the failure of that attempt.
PH94–7740    Konzentrationslager in der Illustrierten. Kurzer Hinweis auf auf die Fotografien von Lee Miller für Vogue
MENZEL, Katharina,
Fotogeschichte, 1995, 15 (55), 27–34
‘Concentration Camps in an illustrated magazine: a brief reference to Lee Miller’s photographs for Vogue.’  Lee Miller had taken photographs in surrealist circles in Paris, in her own portrait studio in New York and of fashion models for Vogue magazine.  As an accredited American war correspondent she followed the Allies to Europe and there photographed for Vogue.  She reached the Concentration Camps at Buchenwald and Dachau in April 1945 and Vogue published some of the photographs.  After the war Miller gave up photography almost completely. She claimed that her photographs had been lost. After her death her son found the negatives.  A comparision between her contact prints and what was printed in Vogue show considerable editing by the magazine
PH94–7741    Das Album von Ephraim Robinson. Jüdische Überlebende in DP–Lagern im Nachkriegsdeutschland
GIERE, Jacqueline, and MARKON, Genya,
Fotogeschichte, 1995, 15 (55), 35–42
‘Ephraim Robinson’s album: Jewish survivors in displace person’s camps in post–war Germany’  concerns an album of photographs belonging to a Jewish survivor, Ephraim Robinson, who lived and photographed in a displaced persons’ camp in Frankfurt–Zeilsheim from 1945 until 1948.  As the Second World War came to an end and the Concentration Camps prisoners were liberated, they included tens of thousands of Eastern European Jews.  They were housed and looked after in reception camps as displaced persons.  Gradually the survivors succeeded in building a new life themselves in these camps.  They elected representatives, founded theatre groups and set up schools.  Their emigration destinations were, above all, Palestine and the USA
PH94–7742    Fotografie und Holocaust. Eine Bibliografie
Fotogeschichte, 1995, 15 (55), 43–

PH94–7743    Die Kunst photographie in Berlin: eine Vorstufe zum Bauhaus
Museums–Journal (Berlin), April 1994, 8 (2), 24–7
Discusses Pictorial photography in Berlin between 1900 to 1930.  Points to the importance of women in this movement
PH94–7744    ‘Photo–inflation’: la profusion des images dans la photographie Allemande, 1925–1945
LUGON, Olivier,
Cahiers du Musée national d’art moderne (Paris), Automne 1994, (49), 90–113

PH94–7745   [Lo studio Brogi a Firenze]
Anthology of seven articles,
AFT: Rivista di Storia e Fotografia (Prato), Dicembre 1994, (20), 4–77.
This issue of AFT is devoted to studies relating to the studio founded by Giacomo Brogi (1822–1881) in Firenze, famous for its reproduction of works of art:  BERSELLI, Silvia, ‘Le specialità artistiche della Casa Giacomo Brogi. I grandi formati per la riproduzione delle opere d’arte’, 4–5;  SCARAMELLA, Lorenzo, ‘Il procedimento di stampa al carbone. Considerazioni su fotografia e cultura fotografica ’, 6–8;  SILVESTRI, Silvia, ‘Lo studio Brogi a Fireze. Ga Giacomo Brogi a Giorgio Laurati. Con una testimonianza di Giancarlo Kaiser e Vincenzo Silvestri’, 9–12;  LUSINI, Sauro, ‘Materiali per la storia della fotografia in Italia. Carlo Brogi e la prima Esposizione de Fotografia’, 33–47;  GRECO, Andrea, ‘Italie 1887 ... Le vacanze italiane di Felix Nadar’, 48–62;  PANERAI, Marco, ‘Cultura e Natura. Le fotografie di Sergio Buffini, Stefano Giusti, Simone Parri e Mariuma Miliani’, 63–72;  TEMPESTI, Fernando, ‘I Brogi al tempo dei Brogi’, 74–77.

PH94–7746    Der Kodak und der Stellungskrieg,
DUDEN, Barbara,
Zeitschrift für Biographieforschung und Oral History, 1994, 7, 64–82.
Discusses amateur photography in World War I.  Emphasizes the extreme situations in which photographs were taken although this is seldom evident from the pictures.  Duden rejects any idea that amateur photographers in 1914 to 1918 produced nothing but uncritical representation of war
PH94–7747    Kodak and the ‘English’ Market between the wars [in 1920s and 1930s]
Journal of Design History (Oxford), 1994, 7 (1), 29–42
A social and marketing history of Englishness in the 1920s and 1930s, with particular reference to Kodak advertising in Great Britain.  At this period the idea of Englishness was refashioned to match middle–class aspirations for a domestic ‘feminine’ way of life, receiving widespread promotion in guide books and a policy of marketing photography as an easy way (due to improved techniques) of retaining happy memories of home life and outdoor leisure activities.  Discusses how Kodak’s creation in 1910 of the ‘Kodak Girl’ to promote its products came into its own once ‘Englishness’ was aligned with this concept of a ‘feminine’ sense of contentment and unstuffy youthfulness.
PH94–7748    Photographers of Russia, Unite Yourself!
GITMAN, Sergei, and STIGNEEV, Valery,
Art Journal (New York), Summer 1994, 53 (2), 28–30
An account of photographic organisation and exhibitions in Russia from the period when the Russian Photographic Society was set up in Moscow in 1894

PH94–7749    Photography in the [Soviet] Thaw
REID, Susan Emily,
Art Journal (New York), Summer 1994, 53 (2), 33–9
On Photography in the Soviet Union from the mid–1950s to mid–1960s
PH94–7750    The Future of a disillusion: sex, truth, and photography in the former Soviet Union
ISAAK, Jo Anna,
Art Journal (New York), Summer 1994, 53 (2), 45–52
PH94–7751    Photographic ethics in the work of Boris Mihailov
Art Journal (New York), Summer 1994, 53 (2), 63–9
Discusses the work starting in the late 1960s of Russian photographer Boris Mihailov (b. 1938)
PH94–7752    After Raskolnikov: Russian Photography today
Art Journal (New York), Summer 1994, 53 (2), 22–7
On the Conceptualist movement of the late 1970s and 1980s in Moscow
PH94–7753    Found and Adjusted: A new Photo–Art from Russia
TAYLOR, Brandon,
Creative Camera, Aug/Sept., 1994, (329), 20–5
Review of an exhibition ‘Photo–Reclamation: New Art from Moscow and St. Petersburg’, covering the 1970s to early 1990s, with the earliest work being by G. Gushchin (b. 1940)
PH94–7754    Fotograf i Shogunens Land — Billeder fra 1880’ernes Japan fundet på dansk loppemarked
SØRENSEN, Vagn Wiberg,
Objektiv, September 1994, (65), 21–35
With a background history of photography in Japan in the nineteenth century, this article particulary concerns an album of fifty hand coloured photographs of the 1880s now in the Royal Library in Copenhagen
PH94–7755    Japan’s best–kept secret [late nineteenth century Ambrotype portraits]
JONES, Peter C.,
Aperture, Winter [1994–] 1995, (138), 75–8
The prevailing western view is that nineteenth–century Japanese photography was produced largely for western consumption is challenged by Charles Schwartz who now has a collection of 150 Japanese Ambrotypes.  Indeed, Ambrotypes were made in Japan on a wide scale after the process was abandoned in the west, and they are often unexpectedly sophisticated and beautiful.  The era of the Japanese Ambrotype begins substantially in 1868 and coincides with the Meiji period which began that year and ended in  1912, while the last known Ambrotype was 1910.  The peak period was in the late 1870s and these Japanese Ambrotypes were nearly universally mounted in elegant two–part Kiri wood boxes.
PH94–7756    Early twentieth century Peruvian Photography
HARTUP, Cheryl,
Latin American Art, 1993, 5 (2), 60–2
Considers the impact of photography in Peru in the first three decades of the twentieth century in regard to the work of Miguel Chani, Juan Figueroa–Azuar, Sebastián Rodriguez, Carlos and Miguel Varges, and Martin Chambi
PH94–7757    Cuban Photography.  Context and Meaning
MRAZ, John,
History of Photography, Spring 1994, 18 (1), 87–96
Photography in Cuba since Castro’s revolution of 1959

PH94–7758    The Kinsey Institute and Erotic Photography.
Anthology: CRUMP, James (guest editor), et al. ]
History of Photography, Spring 1994, 18 (1), 1–49.
This issue contains six articles on the theme of erotic photography, introduced by James Crump in a guest editorial on p.ii :  CRUMP, James, The Kinsey Institute Archive, a Taxonomy of Erotic Photography, 1–12;  SMITH, T.D., Gay Male Pornography and the East, Re–Orienting the Orient, 13–21;  DENNIS, Kelly, Ethno–Pornography, Veiling the Dark Continent, 22–8; CAZABON, Lynn M., ‘Paul Outerbridge, Jr., The Representation of Feminine Sexuality’, 29–37;  EDWARDS, Susan H., Pretty Babies. Art, Erotica or Kiddie Porn?, 38–46;  PEARSON, Jennifer H., Erotic and Pornographic Photography, Selected [International] Bibiography, 47–9.   A correction to the caption of portrait of Kinsey by Irving Penn in fig 1 on p. ii was made in the following issue (Summer 1994, 18 (2), 200).  These articles are discussed in later correspondence by Lindsay SMITH and Melody DAVIS with two responses from J. Crump and T.D. Smith in History of Photography, Winter 1994, 18 (4), 387–9.

PH94–7759    The Photo League
Anthology of four articles,
History of Photography, Summer 1994, 18 (2), 154–194
OLLMAN, Leah, ‘The Photo League’s Forgotten Past’, 154–8;  DEJARDIN, Fiona M., ‘The Photo League: Left–wing Politics and the Popular Press’, 159–73;  TUCKER, Anne, ‘A History of the Photo League: The Members Speak’, 174–84;  JOHNSON, William S., ‘Photo Notes 1938–1950: Annotated Author and Photographer Index’, 185–194

PH94–7760    Women in Photography
Anthology of eight articles
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 205–255.
LOWE, Sarah M., ‘The Immutable Still Lifes of Tina Modotti: Fixing Form’, 205–210;  FERRER, Elizabeth, ‘Lola Álvarez Bravo [1907–1993], A Modernist in Mexican Photography’, 211–8;  KELLER, Judith, and WARE, Katherine, ‘Woman Photographers in Europe 1919–1939. An Exhibition at the Getty Museum [in 1993]’, 219–222;  ARMSTRONG, Carol, ‘Florence Henri: A Photographic Series of 1928 — Mirror, Mirror on the Wall’, 223–9;  LYFORD, Amy J., ‘Lee Miller’s Photographic Impersonations 1930–1945: Conversing with Surrealism’, 230–41;  WILLIAMS, Val, ‘English Collections of Women Photographers in National Museums’, 242–4;  RULE, Amy, ‘Archives of [forty–six] American Women Photographers’, 244–7;  PALMQUIST, Peter E., ‘[Published] Resources for Second World War Women Photographers’ , 247–255.  [This last article by Palmquist provides thirty–six biographies on these photographers, who except for K. Berggrav (Norwegian, who worked in USA) are American, British or Russian]

PH94–7761    ‘Starting from Scratch’: Linda Nochlin traces the beginnings of [her] feminist art history
Women’s Art Magazine (London), Nov/Dec 1994, (61), 6–11
Linda Nochlin, now Professor of Modern Art at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, looks back on the way her ideas developed in the early 1970s with regard to women and art.  Although the central discourse of the article concerns feminism and art, photography does play a part here because of the influence on Nochlin of a late nineteenth photograph ‘Buy my Apples’.  This photograph is illustrated along with her own photographic creation of 1972, ‘Buy my Bananas’, which features a bearded nude man coyly holding a tray of that fruit at penis level: a companion to, and comment on, the original nineteenth century female version.
PH94–7762    Black and White: Photographs by James VanDerZee [1886–1983] and Walker Evans [1903–1975]
HAGEN, Charles,
Art & Antiques (New York), Summer 1994, 17 (6), 68–75
Comparative account of the life and work of these two American photographers.  VanDerZee at his Guarantee Photo Studio in Harlem, New York, for fifty years chronicled the living fabric of black society — in its heyday in the 1920s and 30s — while Evans achieved fame for his commanding images of American life in the 1930s.  Evans, a quintessential modernist, relied on vernacular subjects and styles to record American society in a manner untarnished by polemics or sentimentality.  VanDerZee was working directly in a vernacular style, but one that celebrated a flowery theatricality far removed from Evan’s seemingly neutral eye.  Otherwise their careers are markedly different, reflecting the divisions within America between black and white cultures
PH94–7763    Walker Evans’ American Photographs: The Sequential Arrangement
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 264–271
PH94–7764    Ansel Adams, Nancy Newhall and Fiat Lux
STOVER, Louise,
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 272–8
In 1963 Nancy Newhall and Ansel Adams were commissioned to produce text and pictures on all aspects of the people and various campuses of the University of California to celebrate its centenary to be celebrated in 1968.  The name of this published portrait of California’s state–wide system was Fiat Lux, taken from their motto ‘Let there be Light’.  It was Adams’ last great project for five years, producing about 6700 negatives, roughly 15% of his total work.  These images have been largely ignored.  Newhall wrote to him ‘you are no more merely the illustrator than I am the writer. What you do informs me and vice versa.’  But Adams himself rejected Fiat Lux as unsuitable to the greater ideals and accomplishment for which he wished to be remembered

PH94–7765    Dr. Fritz Wentzel. Travels in the Balkans 1906–1910
WENTZEL, Volkmar,
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 279–281
An examination of the negatives, and prints made from them recently by the writer (photographer of the National Geographic Magazine),  of his father’s pictures taken in the Balkans soon after he obtained a doctorate in chemistry in Berlin.  The writer states that earlier Dr. Fritz Wentzel had studied under Professor Herman Vogel (1834–1898) whose work lead to orthochromatic and panchromatic sensitization.  Fritz Wentzel used orthochromatic plates of a brand called ‘satrap’ and a Heliar soft–focus lens.  The writer’s reprinting from these plates leads him to recall the artistry of the pictorialist around the turn of the century who were masters of the soft–focus lens
PH94–7766    Digital gutenberg — Every person as publisher.
Image, Spring 1994, 37 (1–2), 3–15.
Wide ranging thoughts on ‘the revolution of the edition’, the changes in technology and conceptual work from Gutenburg’s time in relation to Photography, Motion Pictures, and Radio.
PH94–7767    Image Formation and the Shroud of Turin
CRAIG, Emily, and BRESEE, Randall,
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, January/February 1994, 38 (1), 59–67
Both the first written historical record and modern radiocarbon analysis date the cloth known as the Shroud of Turin to the 13th or 14th centuries.  It has an image of continuous tone, exhibits fine detail without brush strokes, and represents an abundance of three–dimensional information.  This paper demonstrates how the Carbon Dust drawing technique used by medical illustrators can be modified to produce images exhibiting numerous features of the Turin cloth

PH94–7768    Photography in the American West
Journal of the West [USA], 1994, 33 (2):
This issue contains six articles on the history of photography in the American West, giving particular attention to transport:   FISHER, Robert B., Ad hoc justice documented: the “paper daguerreotypes” of George Robinson Fardon [1806–1886], 6–12;  BROMBERG, Nicolette, Photography and the automobile, 20–27;  PALMQUIST, Peter E., The western snapshot as document, 28–35;  BURMAN, Shirley, Women and the American railroad – documentary photography, 36–41;  WYATT, Kyle K., The very image of the past: old photographs and the restoration of historic railroad equipment, 42–51;  SWACKHAMER, Barry A., J.B. Silvis [1830–1900], the Union Pacific’s nomadic photographer, 52–61.
PH94–7769    Two Early Ohio Daguerreians
HUTSLAR, Donald A.,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 149–52
Previously published in the Ohio Historical Society’s Preview, Autumn 1993, (2), 12–3; Winter [1993–]1994, (3), 15–6.  Consists firstly of reminiscence of a silversmith, A.C. Ross, of his amateur production of a daguerreotype immediately after a local publication of the technique in November 1839.  Secondly, the reminiscence published in 1881 of a Solomon Wooley of his incompetent first attempts to carry out the daguerreotype process in December 1849.  He later became an itinerant  daguerreotypist in Ohio and southern states of USA.
PH94–7770    A Mammoth Plate Daguerreotype in Hawaii: The Result of a Diplomatic Indiscretion
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 1–10, xii
Concerns several daguerreotype portraits of members of the Royal family of Hawaii taken in early 1850s.  In particular the article examines a diplomatic trip undertaken in 1850 by two teenage royal princes who accompanied Dr Gerrit Judd, the Hawaiian  king’s Special Commisioner, to France via San Francisco, London, to Paris, and back stopping in Boston, New York and Washington.  The author discusses the possibility that a fine mammoth (27.9 x 33 cm) daguerreotype of Judd and the two princes might have been taken at the Southworth and Hawkes studio in Boston, but advances some evidence that this is unlikely, and the portrait is more likely to have been taken in some other studio in Boston or elsewhere during their trip
PH94–7771  After Simon Wing, Photography was never quite the same
Photographist (Western Photographic Collectors Assoc., Whittier, California), Summer/Fall 1994, (102/103), 6–47
From a single studio in 1856 in Waterville, Maine, USA, Simon Wing (1826–1916) grew over twenty years to own or be co–owner of a large
number of photographic studios all over America.  For nearly sixty years, from 1859 to 1916, Simon Wing and later  S. Wing & Co. produced a bewildering array of photographic materials, cameras, accessories, ferrotypes, photomounts and albums.  Kessler provides an authoritive acount from the great amount of such equipment that has survived and from a treasure trove of Simon’s personal and the Simon company’s business correspondence
PH94–7772    From tripod & cape to point and shoot: some thoughts on the Wellington Photographic Society from 1882 to the present
MAIN, Bill,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, February 1994, (14), 5–8
A concise history divided in three periods (1882–1904, 1911–1960, 1960–1990) of the Wellington Camera Club, New Zealand. Discusses the various styles of those periods and the individuals who were of note during the 112 years existence of the club.  This issue also contains an eight page catalogue of an exhibition featuring examples from thirty–four photographers who have distinguished themselves since the inception of the club
PH94–7773    Helen Connon. An early photographer
New Zealand Journal of Photography, August 1994, (16), 14–15
Helen Connon (c1860–1903) was one of the first New Zealanders to use a No. 2 Kodak camera (with its circular format).  With it she recorded her travels in Europe in 1896 and her life in Christchurch, NZ., where she was headmistress of a girls college
PH94–7774    Women and the Nelson Camera Club 1888–1900
McCARTHY, Rosalina,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, November 1994, (17), 16
The Camera Club in Nelson, New Zealand, began in 1888 with six honorary and twenty paid–up members.  Although work by women was exhibited at the earliest exhibitions, it was not until August 1894 that a decision was made to admit ladies as members.  A short account of the activities of the club is given with particular reference to the photographs by women submitted to competitions

PH94–7775    Letters from Australia in the 1850s
ROBERTS, Jenifer,
Photographic Journal, June 1994, 134 (6), 237
Quotes from a family letter written by a Rose Brown in the mid–1850s in Australia where she and her husband had recently emigrated from England.  She speaks of the public’s current dislike of daguerreotypes and enthusiasm for stereoscopic slides.  Her husband, Lyne, was trying to start a photographic business first in Parramatta, and still by 1855 at Wooloosmoola [?], though that year he gave up and started work in a bank
PH94–7776    Vergeten beelden van de Boerenoorlog in Zuid—Afrika (1899–1902)
ZWEERS, Louis,
Foto: Universeel Maandblad voor Fotografie (Amsterdam), Okt., 1994, 49 (10), 26–31
PH94–7777    Woodbury & Page. Bedrijfsgeschiedenis van een Fotoatelier in Nederlands indie
Foto (Amsterdam), Sept., 1994, 49 (9), 65–9
On the photography in the Netherlands Indies (Indonesia) of Albert Woodbury (1840–1900) and James Page (1833–1865)
PH94–7778    Fotogeschichte: 60.000 Eier und indische Rinderknochen,
KUBACK, Wolfgang,
Medien und Erziehung (München), 1994, (4/5), 16–18.
Short general introduction to the history of photography.
PH94–7779    Stereóskópmyndir á Íslandi
Árbok hins Íslenzka Fornleifafélags, 1994, 61–86
A summary of this paper on Stereoscopic Photographs of Iceland is translated into English on pp. 84–6.  The earliest photographs of Iceland date from 1846 and 1859, but the earliest stereopictures were taken by the photographer of a surveying ship, The Fox, in 1860.  An Icelandic photographer in 1867 advertised stereophotographs but surviving copies show two identical photographs set side by side!  A boom in stereo photography took place between 1900 to 1915.  The article mentions several of the Icelandic photographers who did such work at that time, in particular Magnús Ólafsson was very prolific.  Professional photographers did not do stereo work after 1915, but Sigurður Tómasson, an amateur, concentrated on stereophotography from 1925 to 1968
PH94–7780    The stereoscope and photographic depiction in the 19th century,
Technology and Culture (Chicago), 1993, 34, 729–756
PH94–7781    From Dada to digital: Montage in the twentieth century
DRUCKREY, Timothy,
Aperture, Summer 1994, (136), 4–7
PH94–7782    Phantasm — digital imaging and the Death of Photography
BATCHEN, Geoffrey,
Aperture, Summer 1994, (136), 47–50
PH94–7783    John Goto and photography as High Art
Modern Painters (London), Spring 1994, 7 (1), 100–3
Argues against an assertion by Prof. Roger Scruton (same journal 1989, 2 (1)) that Photography is not a high art.  The author points to the different notion of an artist held by three of a more recent generation who studied at the St. Martin’s School of Art, in London, in the early 1970s.  Andrej Klimowski studied Sculpture, Craigie Horsfield and John Goto were painting students and the three turned to photography.  The author’s argument centres on Goto’s recent work of ten polyptchs of four panels each at a concurrent exhibition ‘John Goto: Recent Histories’

PH94–7784    Vallotton and the Camera — Art and the science of photography
BRUNIERE, Isabelle de la, and GRAPELOUP–ROCHE, Philippe,
Apollo (London), June 1994, 139 (388), 18–23
An account of the life of the artist Félix Valloton (1865–1925) after his marriage in 1899 when he became an enthusiast of the camera and enjoyed photographing interiors and landscapes. Quotes from his letters to his brother Paul.  Reproduces and  discusses his photographs and paintings done in 1901–1903 of his wife in their apartment representing  the ’tender idyll of a life’ at that time
PH94–7785    Vuilard’s photography. Artistry and accident: a re–evaluation of the relationship between the artist’s photographic and painted works
EASTON, Elizabeth W.,
Apollo (London), June 1994, 139 (388), 9–17
More of the photographs of artist Edourd Vuillard (1868–1940) have come to light since an exhibition ‘Vuillard et son Kodak’ was held in 1963.  The author believes Vuillard will stand out as a significant figure in the history of late nineteenth century painters explorations into photography, although the connection between his painted and photographic oeuvre still remains to be established. The author also discusses some of the photographic work of Edgar Degas (1834–1917)
PH94–7786    La Primera historia del arte española ilustrada con fotografias
Goya (Madrid), Julio–Octobre 1993, (235/236), 28–32
PH94–7787    Processo a Von Gloeden
Gente di Fotografia (Palermo), Inverno 1994, 1 (3), 8–11
Breve ma puntuale ricostruzione del caso von Gloeden, ovvero del processo che subirono negli anni ’30 gli eredi dell’archivio dell’artista, a causa di une cultura censoria che esasperava la lettura delle immagini realizzate da von Gloeden in chiave  esclusivamente pornografica.  Giudizio che a lungo ha condizionato il riconoscimento del suo lavoro, viceversa una delle più significative testimonianze di sensibilità pittorica e ricerca estetica della fine del secolo scorso in Italia
PH94–7788    Treasures of the Country House Library. Part 7, Early Photographs of Interiors
HALL, Michael,
Country Life, 17 November 1994, 188 (46), 82–5
Provides an account of photography of Interiors of County Houses done for the magazine by County Life photographers Charles Latham and A.E. Henson in the first three decades of the twentieth century in England.  Questions the reliability of some photographs for use in the history of those interiors as the photographers in some instances had rearranged the furniture
PH94–7789    Flashes of Inspiration
Country Life, 10 November 1994, 188 (45), 46–50
In this extended review of Michael Hall’s book The English Country House 1897–1939 and an exhibition ‘Photography takes Command: The Camera and British Architecture 1890–1939’ held at theRIBA Heinz gallery in London, the writer provides an account of how Charles Lathan became the photographer of Country Life when it started in 1897 and during the first thirteen years established the style of the magazine’s architectural photography.  Frederick Evans (1853–1943) was engaged by the magazine in 1905.  A.E. Henson (died 1972) was the principal Country Life photographer after 1917, with Arthur Gill working in the late 1920s.

PH94–7790    Professional Photographers in Halifax and Huddersfield 1843–1900
ADAMSON, Keith I.P.,
PhotoHistorian Supplement No. 104 (Royal Photographic Society Historical Group:  Spring 1994), 16 pp.
List compiled from contemporary local Directories
PH94–7791    Professional Photographers in South Staffordshire 1850–1940
JONES, Gillian A.,
PhotoHistorian Supplement No. 105 (Royal Photographic Society Historical Group:  Autumn 1994), 20 pp.
Lists names and addresses of 429 photographers. No introductory text.  In 1993 the same author has previously listed photographers of North Staffordshire in Supplement No. 103, see PH93–7439
PH94–7792    Cheap tin trade: The ferrotype portrait Victorian Britain
LINKMAN, Audrey,
Photographica World, June 1994, (69), 17–28
Charts the changing fortunes of the ferrotype in the high streets of Great Britain.  Three appendices list American Gem multiples in Britain; Nineteenth century manuals on the process; and Ferrotype studios.  With fifteen illustrations.

PH94–7793    Photographs While–You–Wait [in two parts]
Photographica World, 1994:  Part 1 — June 1994, (69), 14–16 ; Part 2 — December 1994, (71), 10–14.
The first part describes (with seven illustrations) the wet glass positives and ferrotype process and equipment used by itinerant photographers to supply the  while–you–wait trade.  Part 2 goes on to deal with ‘Automatic Ferrotype Cameras’.  They used ferrotype dry plates, combining varying degrees of automation with facilities for processing in the body of the camera.  Dating from the 1890s to 1914 such cameras included Ladislas Nievsky’s Simplex and Duplex, and the cameras sold by J. Fallowfield and the Chicago Ferrotype (Liverpool) Company

PH94–7794    Living with ghosts
BROWN, Robert,
Antique Collector, November 1994, 65 (10), 60–5
Work and career of war photographer Don McCullin.  His latest work centres on still–lifes, landscapes and people whose way of life is being destroyed.

PH94–7795    Lost Album lays bare Japanese War atrocities
McCARTHY, Terrt,
Independent on Sunday (London), 18 September 1994, 14
An Album of 100 photographs was found in a house being demolished in New Zealand which provides evidence of  organised Japanese war crime in Shanghai in 1937. One photograph is illustrated showing two men suspended by their necks fixed in a wooden frame while they slowly died.  A report showing how photography can record and unexpectedly preserve a moment in history of relevance to later historical debate

PH94–7796    Issues of the day
Anon feature,
British Journal of Photography, 16 November 1994, (7000), 28
On the occasion of the 7000th issue of the British Journal of Photography, this is an editorial glance back (with assistance of Gill Thompson at library of the Royal Photographic Society) at the milleniary numbered issues of the journal  beginning with the first issue of 14 January 1854 (under the shortly lived original title as the ‘Liverpool Photographic Journal’ in 1854); 1000 (1879); 2000 (1898); 3000 (1917); 4000 (1937); 5000 (1956); 6000 (1975)

PH94–7797    Rejlander, Babbage, and Talbot
SMITH, Graham,
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 285–6
A note on snippets of information obtainable from correspondence between the mathematician Charles Babbage (1792–1871) and W. H. F. Talbot that exists in the Talbot Museum at Lacock and in the Babbage Correspondence in the British Library. Rejlander comes into the picture with regard to Babbage merely to the extent that a studio photograph taken in 1871 by Rejlander of a newspaper boy contains a newspaper broad sheet showing the name of Babbage reporting his death

PH94–7798    Early Scottish Photographic Exhibitions. Nineteenth Century Correspondence
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 286–7
Letters, invoices and other papers of the Photographic Society of Scotland from its foundation in 1856 to 1873 exist at the Scottish Record Office in Edinburgh.  Haworth–Booth has searched a sample from the year 1858 with regard to documentation relating to photographic exhibitions at that time

PH94–7799    The origins of the Rolleiflex International Salon of Photography Medals
VIDLER, Adrian,
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 25

PH94–7800    George Rodger’s Magnum reunion
Photographic Journal, September 1994, 134 (8), 332–4
Roy Green reports on a celebration held on 24 June 1994 at a private viewing of an exhibition of George Rodger’s photographs attended by many Magnum Photo agency photographers.  Illustrated with a photograph by Peter Lavery of thirty–five Magnum photographers with George Rodger (1908–1995), and his wife, in the centre of the group

PH94–7801     Il “Paparazzismo”
Gente di Fotografia (Palermo), Autunno, 1994, 1 (2), 8–9

PH94–7802    Fotografie auf Briefmarken
Color Foto, 1994, 24 (3), 28–9
On Postage Stamps that commemorate photographic inventors and photographers.  Raymond Schuessler has collected 150 examples which includes postage stamps issued in France in 1939 with portraits of Niepce and Daguerre.  There are examples showing George Eastman, Edison, Morse, the Lumiere brothers, and Zeiss.  Australian postage stamps have been issued celebrating Max Dupain and Wolfgang Sievers, and in Canada portraits of William Notman and Georges Desbarats

PH94–7803    History Revisited
VEGA, Carmelo,
PhotoVision (Sevilla), 1994, (25), 8–15; 55–62
In both Spanish and in English translation.  Considers the extent to which photographers have been aware of the history of photography.

PH94–7804    History Man [Beaumont Newhall’s History]
British Journal of Photography, 13 January 1994, 141 (6956), 11–12
Makes a reassessment of Beaumont Newhall’s History of Photography asserting that Newhall employed an art history approach focussing primarily on style which was a retrograde step for photography

PH94–7805   An Historical Fantasy [Blague. Witz.  Broma.]: ‘Discovered! The First Person to be Photographed!’,
GILBERT, George,
Photographica (American Photographic Historical Society), July 1994, 23 (3), 8–10
[Comment by compiler of photohistorica: This is NOT a real article on the history of photography, it is not a real discovery (as is obvious when time is spent reading it), but was intended by the author as a parody, a spoof, a joke — Avertissement : Attrape — Warnung : Streich — ¡Cuidado! : Engaño, Travesura ]

PH94–7806    Striving for Improvement: Additions & Revisions to the 1990. 1991, & 1992 [Daguerreian] Annuals. [and] Five–Year Index: 1990–1994
BATY, Laurie A.,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 237–47
Laurie Baty, the new editor of the Daguerreian Annual, undertook a systematic review of the articles published in the first three Annuals to determine what additions, revisions or corrections might be necessary.  Each author’s assistance was requested by letter for corrections or new information.  Where the author has supplied such information it has been recorded; otherwise Laurie Baty made corrections and added new information before the authors were again given a final opportunity to review any such comments or corrections.  This 1994 issue on pp.260–80 also contains a cumulative ‘Five–year Index: 1990–1994’


PH94–7807    Notes on an Early Daguereotype of Walt Whitman
BETHEL, Denise B.,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 18–21
Reprinted from Walt Whitman Quarterly Review, Winter 1992, 9, 148–53.  Previously assumed to have been taken in New York, but examination by the author leads to conclusion that this daguerreotype was taken in New Orleans and thus can be dated to 1848.  The author arrived at this conclusion by considering the differences between American daguerreotypes and those of European origin including any produced in those parts of the United States where European materials and a European aesthetic would apply.  American daguerreotypes are found mounted with brass mats in cases.  Passe–partout mounts (as with the Whitman portrait) are customarily found on French daguerreotypes.

PH94–7808    Napoleón Aubanel’s Stereo [daguerreotype] View of Montevideo [1858]
CUARTEROLO, Miguel Angel,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 66–70
This stereo view is of a civil ceremony held in Montevideo to commemorate the seventh anniversary of the end of a siege by Argentians of the city that lasted from 1843 to 1851. It has a dedication to the President on the lid dated 8 October 1858, the year before Aubanel’s name disappears from business directories of Montevideo in which he had been listed both as dentist and as daguerreotypist from 1856.  The article has an introductory account of the first daguerreotype studios in Montevideo in the 1840s, beginning with a brief account of reports in two Uraguayan newspapers in March 1840 of the first public demonstration there of the daguerreotype by Father Louis Compte [sic] from the ‘Belgian’ [sic] schooner L’Orientale.

PH94–7809    A visit to Mr. Beard’s
JACOB, Michael G.,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 154–65
A reappraisal of the extant daguerreotype images of Maria Edgeworth (1767–1849), the nineteenth–century irish writer, and her family, has provided  new insights into the operation of the Beard Studio in London.  Based on his consideration of the format and presentation of the Edgeworth daguerreotypes, Mike Jacob puts forward five characteristics as typical of Beard Studio daguerreotypes in the first five months of operation

PH94–7810    Edinburgh Ale and the Morning After
Scottish Photography Bulletin, 1994, (2), 7–8
Suggests possible contemporary influence on two photographs by Hill and Adamson.  Two illustrations

PH94–7811    Chronophotography. Part I: Eadweard Muybridge, from Sacramento to Paris 1872 – 1881
POPPLE, Simon,
Photographica World, December 1994, (71), 31–4
An account of Muybridge’s attempts to photograph horses in motion

PH94–7812    Repenser le panorama de San Francisco
HARRIS, David,
La Recherche Photographique, Automne 1994, (17), 24–29
A propos d’Eadweard Muybridge [1830–1904] et Carleton Watkins (son panorama de 1864).  Cet article es né du travail de préparation et de montage, en trois lieux différents, sur une période d’une an, de l’exposition ‘Eadweard Muybridge and the  Photographic Panorama of San Francisco, 1850–1880’.  Ce texte se veut donc un complément de l’essai publié (Montréal, 1992) dans le catalogue de cette exposition

PH94–7813    Fremde Heimat: Deutsche in Ostasien, 1910–1940
STARL, Timm,  and WOLF, Herta,
Fotogeschichte, 1993, 13 (50), 2–69
The photography collection of the Munich Municipal Museum holds the photographic works by Heinrich R. Baist (1889–1983) and Mathilde Baist (née Leschhorn) (1897–1964).  He started work for a trading compamy in Hong Kong in 1910, became a prisoner of war in Japan for five years from 1914, and after marriage lived and traded in Canton until about 1941.  The complete issue is devoted to the life and photographs by the Baists, consisting of photographs taken in Hongkong 1910–1914,  Japanese prisoner of war camps 1915–1920, Canton 1923 to end of 1930s, and during travels through many parts of east asia in the 1930s.  The photographs are analysed within a discourse on colonialist perspectives.  Includes long summary in English on pp.76–7.

PH94–7814    Das Lebende Bild un sein ‘Überleben’. Versuch einer Spurensicherung
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (51), 3–18
‘The Tableau Vivant and its “survival”.’  In the nineteenth century, the staging of tableaux vivants was part of the social life of the nobility and upper bourgeoisie in Austria.  Whereas we only have evidence of such tableaux vivants from the first half of that century from written accounts or in graphic art, thanks to photography we can get a much better impression of later ones.  However, as up to about 1889 such photographs were not taken where the tableaux vivants were actually staged,  but in studios were they were re–stage, what the photographs reproduce is infact a quotation of what was once presented.

PH94–7815    ‘Die Spiel de Pupe’ im Licht de Todes. Das Motiv des Mannequins in der Auseinandersetzung surrealistischer Künstler mit dem Medium Fotografie
SCHADE, Sigrid,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (51), 27–38
‘ “The Games of the Doll” in the light of Death’  is a discourse on the motif of the doll or mannequin which frequently and conspicuously appears in the photographs of surrealistic artists.  Wols, Man Ray, Hans Bellmer and others do not use the doll so as to simulate a human being, but rather to portray how indistinguishable the living and the dead are in photography

PH94–7816    Die Bildwelt der Knipser. Eine empirische Untersuchung zur privaten Fotografie
STARL, Timm,
Fotogeschichte, 1994, 14 (52), 58–68
‘The Pictorial World of Snapshots: empirical examination of amateur photography’.  Timm Starl has examined, and sorted according to various criteria, 72388 prints collected and kept by 242 owners (all Germans or Austrians).  Taking representative samples during the period between 1900 and 1960 each print was categorised according to the ‘theme’ (ie the occasion on which the photograph was taken, such as holidays (42.1%), celebrations (3.3%), or public events (1.7%), etc.) and ‘Motifs’  (ie the objects photographed, such as persons (59.6%), buildings (11.2%), etc).  Tables of data are presented including one on formats preferred during different periods

PH94–7817    Bertel Thorvaldsen. Et helplade–daguerreotypi fra 1840?
BERENDT, Flemming,
Objektiv, September 1994, (65), 38–42
Discusses a daguerreotype of the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770–1844), now preserved at the Thorvaldsen museum in København, with particular attention to the whereabouts in 1840 of the daguerreotypist Aymand Neubourg (1795–1865/6)

PH94–7818    En guldalderfotograf i Paris
BERENDT, Flemming,
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 12–17
On Daguerreotypes taken in Paris in 1848 by Danish marine artist Anton Melbye (1818–1875)

PH94–7819    Missionær og fotograf i Grønland
Objektiv, December 1994, (67), 18–24
Frederik Carl Peter Rüttel (1859–1915), born in 1859 at Gårslev, Denmark, served as a missionary on the artic circle at Angmagssalik, Greenland, from 1894 to 1904.  The article illustrates and discusses some of his photographs of the people of Greenland

PH94–7820    The Photographs of Gerrit Van Beek
MAIN, Bill,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, May 1994, (15), 14–5
Gerrit van Beek (1890–1951)  was a Dutch Catholic priest who photographed the Maori in his parish in rural New Zealand during the 1920s and 1930s.  He retired and went back to Holland after the second world war.  His negatives have recently been donated to the Rotorua City Art Museum.

PH94–7821    Baalbek vastgelegd door Gustave Le Gray. Een bijzondere vondst in de collectie van het Rijksmuseum
BOOM, Mattie,
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 181–4
In 1860 renowned French photographer Gustave Le Gray (1820–1882), after several months in Sicily and Malta, spent the period from May to September in Beirut.  In the Rijksmuseum collection is a panoramic view of the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of Jupiter at Baalbeck printed from two waxed–paper negatives joined together.  It is not clear whether it was made in 1869 or on a possible later visit to Baalbeck.  Along with other recent finds it may well, the author suggests, reopen discussion on Le Gray’s Egyptian period, which might not consitute as much of a decline as his biographer has earlier suggested.  (In Dutch)

PH94–7822    Tekenen met licht. De fotograaf A. Jarrot en beeldend kunstenaar Willem de Famars Testas in Egypte 1858–1860
BOOM, Mattie,
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 185–201
Amongst the drawings and watercolours by the Dutch orientalist Willem de Famars Testas (1834––1896) at the Rijkmuseum is a large early photograph of a street in Cairo. It has been worked up in watercolour and ink in the manner of a photographie peinte more commonly used for portraits.  Another example of the technique is a portrait of De Famars Testas made in Egypt in 1859 by the Parisian photographer A. Jarrot.  This article further discusses the expedition to Egypt when De Famars Testas (who kept a detailed diary) and Jarrot accompanied the Egyptologist Emile Prisse d’Avennes.   (In Dutch)

PH94–7823    Wat heeft men dar weertwee ellendige portretten van mij in’t licht gegeven!
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 219–42
Over het in prent brengen van een aantal daguerreotypie portretten van de dichter H. Tollens cz 1849–1856
PH94–7824    Beyond the front door: interior views of a victorian Nebraska town,
Journal of the West [USA], 1994, 33 (1), 45–52

PH94–7825    Photography in the American west: victorian overtones,
WILLIAMS, Bradley B.,
Journal of the West [USA], 1994, 33 (1), 84–95.

PH94–7826    Seeing Sherrie Levine
October, Winter 1994, (67), 78–107
A discussion of Sherrie Levine’s 1980 photograph ‘After Walker Evans’.  The article also refers to the work of Dorothea Lange in the late 1930s for the Farm Security Administration

PH94–7827    Of Stars and Family Values [Annie Leibovitz, b.1949]
McGRATH, Roberta,
Women’s Art Magazine (London), March/April 1994, (57), 6–8
The author writes on Annie Leibovitz’s view of wealth and fame in America through the 1970s to today as conveying a contemporary American folk tale — the collective fantasy of a generation, about having your cake and eating it.  ‘The enfant terrible of the seventies has in the nineties become a grande dame of photography’.  Other reviewers of an exhibition in London of Leibovitz’s work of the 1970s and 80s were: SMITH, Giles, ‘How flattery got Annie everywhere’, Independent on Sunday,13 March 1994, Review p.22;  PALMER, Andrew, ‘A ride on the back of the horse called Fame’, Independent, 9 March 1994, 24 [Questions the integrity of Leibovitz’s photographs of the rich and famous]; MAYES, Ian, ‘Annie and the hype machine’, Guardian, 4 March 1994, supplement 2, 6–7

PH94–7828    An African–American Portfolio
ISENBURG, Matthew,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 170–209
A Portfolio of thirty–seven daguerreotype portraits of African–Americans, much more than half of which are from the collection of Gregg French.  Some thoughts on these daguerretypes are provided by Matthew Isenburg in an introduction on pp. 171–5.  He points out the ‘Even though we have no proof that some of these people were slaves, we draw that conclusion just as surely as we draw the conclusion that some of these people were financially independent’. This group of daguerreotypes are almost all  sixth–plate in size. Only three were larger, while in a general collection of portraits it would have been about forty percent.  Isenburg guesses that for every 500 or 600 images of white persons that survives, only one of a black person exists.

PH94–7829    Pacific power: a postcolonial perspective
Photofile (Sydney), March 1994, (41), 32–6
Thoughts on an exhibition ‘South Pacific Stories’ held in Sydney in 1993.  Discusses the wealth of photographic material representing the people of the islands of the south Pacific produced by the studio in Sydney of Charles Kerry [1858–1928] and by Henry King [1855–1923] which were produced as postcards in the 1890s and first years of the twentieth–century. The images represent colonialist and sexist stereotypes

PH94–7830    The Artifice of Realism — The Studio Portraits of William Crawford 1911–1913
Art New Zealand, August 1994, (74), 87–9
Discusses the portraits of Irish–born William Crawford (1844–1915).  Emigrating to New Zealand in 1854, he worked at many jobs before taking up photography

PH94–7831    “With my own eyes”: fetishism, the labouring body and the colour of its sex
POLLOCK, Griseld,
Art History (Oxford), September 1994, 17 (3), 342–382
Arthur J. Munby (1828–1910) made sixteen visits to coal mining districts around Wigan, England, between 1853–1887, to observe women  labourers. He recorded his impressions in nine notebooks preserved in an archive of his papers and of photographs at Trinity College, Cambridge.  He was obsessed with observing heavy work by women with not–quite–female bodies and preserved his visual encounters in photographs of woman miners he purchased locally or arranged to have taken in local photographic studios.  The article has 33 figures, including 11 photographs from the Munby archive and are discussed in the context of his sexual fantasies about large working class women.  Reference is made to Zola’s Germinal and The Belgian at Home (1911) by C. Holland

PH94–7832    Pioneer with a gender agenda
CORK, Richard,
Times (London), 15 November 1994, p. 31 with 6 illustrations.
Comments on defiant life and self–portraits of Claude Cahun (1894–1954).  Her photography was currently the subject of a retrospective exhibition ‘Mise–en–scene’ at the ICA gallery in London, one hundred years after she was born in Nantes.  While studying at the Sorbonne during the first world war, Lucy Schwob decided to shed her identity choosing the pseudonym Claude to obscure her gender and she produced the first of her androgynous self–portraits which dramatised the diversity of her sexual identity.  Sentenced to death in Jersey during the second world war, she survived, but found the Nazis had destroyed much of her work.  Her subversive photographs can be seen today as a defiantly original contribution to the surrealist movement

PH94–7833    Hidden Gems [Photographs by William Eggleston; C. Killip; Zarina Bhimj; Gustav Seidon; J.M. Cameron; Irving Penn: and R. Crawshay (Ambrotype)]
British Journal of Photography, 1994, 141:
Mark Haworth–Booth reflects on a series of photographs of his choice:  William Eggleston’s Kitchen Sink, in BJP, 13 January 1994, 141 (6957), 26;  Chris Killip, picture of despair (1982/3), 17 February 1994 (6961), 11;  Zarina Bhimj’s 1989 large polaroid instant construct images with hair, 28 March 1994, (6966), 17;  Gustav Seidon’s ‘In the Studio’ (Budapest, 1933), 20 April 1994, (6970), 25;  Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘St Agnes’, 18 May 1994, (6974), 15;  Irving Penn’s ‘Harlequin Dress’ (New York 1950), 22 June 1994, (6979), 15;  and Robert Crawshay’s collodion positives c1870, taken in a Turkish bathhouse in Wales, in BJP, 20 July 1994, (6983), 15

PH94–7834    The Lost Brandts
HALLETT, Michael,
British Journal of Photography, 28  March 1994, 141 (6966), 12–3
Peter James of the Birmingham Central Library shows the writer an album of photographs by Bill Brandt recently rediscovered amongst the photographic collection of the Bourneville Village Trust.  The photographs (74 prints, 66 negatives) document housing conditions

PH94–7835    Dance Master [Doisneau’s ‘La Trépidante Wanda’]
British Journal of Photography, 21 September 1994, (6992), 45, 47.
At a street fair in Paris in 1953, Wanda worked as a stripper on her parents’ stall called Le Cabaret de l’Escargot.  Peter Hamilton discusses one of Robert Doisneau’s most enduring images ‘La Trépidante Wanda’.  It is also mentioned that Brassai lived not far from the stall and (although Doisneau did not know it ) had also photographed Wanda

PH94–7836    The Photographs of Edouard Baldus
DANIEL, Malcolm,
The Magazine Antiques (New York), September 1994, 146 (3), 318–29
This article (with sixteen illustrations) on the photography of Eduard Baldus (1820–1882) is by one of the curators and principal author of the catalogue of a travelling exhibition ‘The Photographs of Edouard Baldus: landscapes and Monuments of France’ about to open at the Metropolitan Museum, New York

PH94–7837    Carlo Marochetti et les photographes
Revue de l’Art (Paris), 1994, (104), 43–8
Discusses the use of photographs by sculptor Carlo Marochetti (1805–1867).

PH94–7838    Nadar: l’identité ou la ressemblance
Beaux Arts Magazine (Paris), Juin 1994, (124), 96–101
A discussion on Nadar’s portrait photography of the period 1854 to 1860, on the occasion of an exhibition at Musée d’Orsay.  Another consideration of Nadar’s career and work is provided by Françoise HEILBRUN, curator at the Musée d’Orsay, in Connaissance des Arts, Juin 1994, (507), 82–7

PH94–7839    Felix Nadar — Fotopionier mit allerlei Extravaganzen
THIEL, Peter,
MFM Fototechnik, September 1994, 42 (9), 54–5

PH94–7840    Laszlo Moholy–Nagy [1895–1947]. Spazio, tempo, luce.
AFT: Rivista di Storia e Fotografia, Giugno 1994, (19), 52–8

PH94–7841 Anton Giulio Bragaglia, ovvero la sperimentazione e l’autonomia, il movimento e la luce
F & D — Foto & Dintorni, Giugno 1994, (2), 13–5
Breve analisi del fondamentale contributo dell’ artista Anton Giulio Bragaglia all storia della fotographia quale ‘inventore della fotodinamica’

PH94–7842    Weegee: la sacralisation du fait divers
La Recherche Photographique, Printemps 1994, (16), 10–15
On the crime photography of Weegee [Arthur Fellig (1900–1968)] in New York during the 1940s

PH94–7843    Le jour et la nuit. La photographie dans Le Nouveau Détective.
MARESCA, Sylvain,
La Recherche Photographique, Printemps 1994, (16), 16–21
Le Nouveau Détective poursuit la tradition de ‘occasionnels’ et autres ‘canards sanglants’ apparatus dès le xvie siècle et celle, plus récente, des suppléments illustrés lancés vers 1860 par plusieurs journaux à gros tirage. Il conserve effectivement   certains traits de présentation d’un quotidien — le format et l’illustration en noir et blanc. Voilà donc un hebdomadaire qui fonctionne comme un journal, dont il ne reprendrait cependant qu’une rubrique, la chronique des faits divers

PH94–7844    Brassaï, paysages de femmes
BORHAN, Pierre,
Beaux Arts Magazine (Paris), Mars 1994, (121), 80–5
Dans l’oevre de Brassaï [Gyula Halász (1899–1984)], la femme, ou plus exactement le nu féminin, est un sujet rare et méconnu

PH94–7845    Brassaï’s papillion de nuit
PARA, Jean–baptiste,
Europe (Paris), 1994, 294–9

PH94–7846    Atget’s Populism
ROSEN, Jeff,
History of Photography, Spring, 1994, 18 (1), 50–63
During 1898 and 1899 Eugène Atget produced a series of photographs depicting Parisian street pedlars.  They depart from his architectural views of city streets for which he was best known and concentrate on a borrowed visual tradition, the iconography of romantised street types, the petit métier.  This essay examines the traditional iconography of steet pedlars represented in drawings and woodcuts, and argues that Atget’s petit métier series of photographs are populist first because they perpetuate the prevailing stereotype, and secondly because his images of street pedlars, understood as archaic remnants of preindustrial society, appealed to sentiments associated with populist nationalism

PH94–7847    Henry Holmes Smith’s Mother and Son [1951]. Oedipal Syrup
History of Photography, Spring 1994, 18 (1), 78–86

PH94–7848    The Crucifixion in Photography
MARABLE, Darwin,
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 256–263
Portrayal of the Crucifixion in photography has served many purposes. F. Holland Day wanted to prove photography was a Fine Art, but his images were not as intense as his passion and zeal.  Frantisek Dritikol’s nude women on the cross acknowledged suppression of women in modern life. 

Paul Strand’s surrealist skeleton summons us to witness the horrors about to take place in Nazi Germany.  John O’Leary S. treats Christ’s death on the cross as if he were a photojournalist.  In 1987, Nina Glaser symbolised the rising of the spirit with a figure (who had AIDS) transfigured with light. J–P Witkin in 1987 combined sculpture, silkscreen and photography. All interpretations attest to this ancient theme, but in the most unexpected medium — photography

PH94–7849    Fred Holland Day [1864–1933] and his ‘scandalous art’
Photographic Journal, May 1994, 134 (5), 196–8
The Royal Photographic Society collection has 120 of Day’s photographs. On the occasion of an current exhibition of his work from the turn of the last century, the curator looks back to the exhibition of Day’s photographs at the RPS in London in October 1900 with her opinion that they are ‘as extraordinary now as they were then.’

PH94–7850    Camille Silvy’s ‘River Scene’: a wealth of meaning
Photographic Journal, September 1994, 134 (8), 338–9
A review of Mark Haworth–Booth’s study of Silvy’s ‘River Scene’, with a footnote by the reviewer on images of cloud in sky and reflected in water

PH94–7851    Peter Henry Emerson: The Limits of Representation
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 281–4
Although Emerson used the mechanical device of a camera, his later photographs are representative of a subjectivized vision.  His differential focus and avoidance of sharp details in his pictures result from attempts to preserve something of the corporeality of our perception and an increasing sense of his own relationship to the landscape.  The author thus examines developments in Emerson’s eight sets of photographs of life and landscape of East Anglia in porfolios and in books he published  between 1886 and 1895.  Attention is given to Emerson’s mimetic project being critical and dismissive of realism, concluding that his last pictures ‘are heavy with suggestions of a density of a phenomenal world which ... remains beyond representation.’

PH94–7852    Behind every Landscape is a woman: P.H. Emerson’s anxieties of class and gender
Afterimage, March 1994, 21 (8), 9–12
The author has a notion that ‘Emerson’s style of masculinity was safe in Norfolk among the “natives”... He was pleased to have found in East Anglia a region that satisfied his need for clear lines between the worlds of men and woman, and between owners and the landless laborers.’

PH94–7853    Photographic Memory, Ageing and the Life Course
BLAIKIE, Andrew,
Ageing and Society (Cambridge), 1994, 14, 479–497
Although photographs are frequently used to illustrate discussions about ageing they have not been assessed critically as gerontological sources.  This paper argues that the pictorial record since the 1840s contains both problems and possibilities.  A case study from Victorian Scotland indicates the methodological pitfalls of taking images at face value as the ambiguity and maleability of images all too easily enables generalised fictions to shroud diversity of individual experience.  The author has also developed this theme in another article published a few months later: ‘Photographic images of age and generation’, Education and Ageing, 1995, 10 (1), 5–15

PH94–7854    Robert Flaherty Sub–Artic Photogravures
DEWAN, Janet,
History of Photography, Autumn 1994, 18 (3), 289–291
In 1922 portfolios of gravures from Flaherty’s sub–artic photographs were published.  Various holdings in Canadian archives have been compared. At first it appeared that the series of eighteen photogravures might have been published in two formats — all eighteen together as ‘Camera Studies of the North’, or in sets of six. But the situation is much more complicated and more data is needed.

materials and equipment

PH94–7855    Union Cases for the British Market?
Photographica World, September 1994, (70), 12–14
About twelve manufacturers generated more than 800 different moulded designs of Union Cases.  They all appear to have been manufactured in America.  But the design and current location of certain cases suggests that some may have been specifically intended for export to Britain

PH94–7856    A Case for Critchlow
OUIMET, Bethany, and Will,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 224–31
Sets out the relationships between the various manufacturing companies of the Connecticut valley in Massachusetts who made thermoplastic cases, brass accessories for thos cases and daguerreotype plates.  The four companies are Holmes Booth and Haydens, Scovil & Co, A.P. Critchlow & Co, and Scovil & Co.  Labels inside daguerreotype thermoplastic cases of the 1850s claimed that they were ‘the Original Inventors of the Composition for the Union Case’, and the authors in tracing Critchlow’s background and exposure to papier–mâché (born in England where he had been employed in molding buttons in Bimingham the centre of such expertise) suggest it strengthens this claim for inventing the formulae for the thermoplastic

PH94–7857    More on Roll Films
GIBSON, David A.,
Photographist (Whittier, California), Winter 1993/4, (100), 7
A letter discussing an issue raised by an article on Eastman Roll Films by Reed Berry in a previous issue of the journal (see PH93–7540):  the relationship between Eastman Kodak and the Defender Photo Supply company of Rochester, NY, between 1909 and 1913 and between Kodak, Vulcan, and Hawkeye Roll Film

PH94–7858    All About Posing Chairs
KESSLER, Mike (editor),
Photographist, Spring 1994, (101), 1–24
A special issue of the journal in which the editor provides reproductions of advertisements for studio posing chairs from American Catalogues between 1882 and 1912

PH94–7859    Story of a forgotten pioneer, E. Sanger–Shepherd
Photographic Canadiana, March/April 1994, 19 (5), 10–14
A collection of partial data on the Sanger–Shepherd company in London who produced photographic and optic equipment ( in particular the Sanger–Shepherd patented Density Meter) as well as light filters and other sensitometry equipment from around 1902 until Edward Sanger–Shepherd died in 1927.  The work of the company in producing special filters was continued by a past employer, Miss G. Geoghegan, under a company name of ESS Color Filter Co.  Has three pages illustrating Sanger–Shepherd advertisements from contemporary British Journal Almanacs

PH94–7860    Vom Siegellack zum grafischen Spezialfilm: Von Adox zu Du Pont
MFM Fototechnik, Mai 1994, 42 (5), 32–3

PH94–7861    Filmpackungen: Schachteln mit Geschichte
Color Foto, 1994, 24 (4), 164–5; 24 (5), 138–9.
Angesichts der unzähligen Filmsorten aus Vergangenheit und Gegenwart bilden die Verpacken ein unfangeiches Sammelgebiet. Der Autor erinnert in Text und Abbildungen an den früheren charakteristischen Schriftzug ‘Agfacolor’, die ‘Gevaert–Banane’ sowie fast vergessene Namen, wie Sakura, Ferraniacolor, Telcolor, Schleussner (Adox), Tellko, Dekopan, Mimosa, Herzog und Kranz. Auch die Farbe der Verpackung spielte für viele Filmhersteller eine große Rolle: Orange bei Agfa, Gelb bei Kodak und Adox, Grün bei Perutz und Fuji


PH94–7862    In Memorium. Robert Bingham, M.D.  July 21, 1910 – May 1, 1994.
Photographist,    Winter  1993/4,   (100),  3
The death on 1 May 1994 of Dr. Bingham, influential camera collector, is reported with an appreciation of the inspiration he provided to other collectors in California.  His collection, particularly renown for the Leicas,
was many years ago donated to the University of Californa Museum of Photography.  A more detailed account of Dr. Bingham and his collecting appeared several years ago in The Photographist, Fall 1986, Nr.71.

PH94–7863    Derrick Knight MBE, FRPS [1919–1994]
British Journal of Photography, 31 March 1994, 141 (6967), 9
Derrick Knight, English documentary film maker and photojournalist, died on 20 February 1994, aged 74.  After leaving school in 1936 he started work in the renowned GPO Film Unit.  Joining the army in 1939 he was selected for the Army Film Unit.  After the war he worked as an industrial photographer for Shell until 1960, when he left to become manager of Press Association – Reuter Photos, transforming its photographic working techniques.  From 1971 to 1984 Knight worked in a different field of army public relations. He was on the councils of the Royal Photographic Society and the Institute of British Photographers

PH94–7864    Ein Meister der ‘Candid Camera’ zum Tod von Harald Lechenperg
MFM Fototechnik, März 1994, 42 (3), 11–13
Harald Lechenperg wurde am 1904 in Wien geboren.  Ein pionier des modernen Bildjournalismus, ist am Neujahrstag 1994 auf dem Sonnengrubhof in Kitzbühl gestorben.  Karl Steinorth erinnert an diesen bedentenden Fotografen, der allerdings wegen seiner Tätigkeit als Chefredakteur der Berliner Illustrirten 1937–1943 nicht unumstritten ist

PH94–7865    Au revoir Monsieur Doisneau!
Photographe (Paris), Mai 1994, (1514), 8–11
A tribute to Robert Doisneau who died on 1 April 1994.  The anonymous writer considers that Doisneau’s work not only evoked a certain poetic social realism, but also conveyed serious themes through use of humour

PH94–7866    Obituaries: Robert Doisneau, French Photographer, died yesterday aged 81
Times (London), 2 April 1994, 19

PH94–7867    Obituaries. Robert Doisneau [1912–1994]
Independent (London), 2 April 1994, 17
Following on from this obituary, a letter ‘Camera deception with an air of truth’ from a reader, Ted Welch, was published on 7 April 1994, 17
PH94–7868    Obituaries. Robert Doisneau
Independent (London), 2 April 1994, 17
This obituary of Doisneau appeared alongside another by Val Williams, and Hamilton later (Independent, 8 April 1994, 14) enlarged on a discussion of the circumstances relating to recent legal action concerning Doisneau’s famous Kiss photograph of 1950.  A similar obituary  (‘Robert Doisneau. Born Gentilly, 14 April 1912, died Paris, 1 April 1994’) by Peter Hamilton, who is Doisneau’s official biographer, also appeared later in the British Journal of Photography, 13 April 1994, 141 (6969), 16–7

PH94–7869    Robert Doisneau 1912–1994
TURNER, Peter,
New Zealand Journal of Photography, August 1994, (16), 8,10
An appreciation of the life and work of the Parisian photographer who died in 1994.  In particular reports an interview the writer had with Doisneau in his apartment in Paris in the 1970s: ‘He was charning and full of anecdotes. When I expressed surprise that he should live in such an “ordinary” street ... he pointed to the trees outside and told me that much of what he wanted to photograph was so ordinary that people had stopped looking at it, and that on a good day he could turn plane trees into palm trees! ... Paris, he told me, was like a theatre and he would simply position himself in the best seat and wait for the actors to arrive’



PH94–7870    The evolution of thinking on the Mechanism of Spectral Sensitization
DÅHNE, Siegfried,
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, March/April 1994, 38 (2), 101–117
A detailed paper, with 136 references, on the evolution of thinking on the mechanisms of spectral sensitization beginning with its discovery by Hermann W. Vogel in 1873, while the onset of modern theories began with Gurney and Mott in 1938

PH94–7871    Experiments with obsolete printing processes on hand–made papers
TANG, Samuel,
Photographica World, March 1994, (68), 22–4
Reports on the results of experiments with the Cyanotype, gum bichromate, and salt printing processes using papers made to specific requirements. Three illustrations

PH94–7872    Palette of Light. Handcrafted Photographs, 1898 – 1914
NAEF, Weston J.,
Photographica (American Photographic Historical Society), October 1994, 23 (4), 7–10
On Gum bichromate prints of the 1890s and first years of the twentieth century, concentrating on work by Heinrich Kuhn, Edward Steichen and George Seely. Five examples illustrated.  The text was originally an essay accompanying an exhibition at  the J. Paul Getty Museum, California

PH94–7873    Photographic Printing in Colloidal Gold
WARE, Mike,
Journal of Photographic Science, 1994, 42 (5), 157–161
Article on the photochemistry of gold, with a historical introduction on the first page with the relevant fourteen references on p.160

PH94–7874    Mercury & the Daguerreotypist: a Modern Assessment
NELSON, Kenneth E.,
Daguerreian Annual, 1994, 118–46
Examines Mercury as a critical component of the daguerreotype process, with emphasis on the characteristics and toxicity of Mercury, precautions for its use in daguerreotypy today, its effects on health and treatment if exposed to it.  With a bibliography on pp.144–5

PH94–7875    Grafiek naar vroege foto’s 1839–1870
Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, 1994, 42 (3), 202–218
Discusses the evolution of photomechanical printing from the early days of photography to the introduction of the Woodburytype in 1864 and the collotype in 1869.  Suggests that in the early years photography posed no threat to engraving and lithography as illustrative material in publishing.  Indeed important events were recorded in both photographs and prints, the latter not always strictly according to reality as they were sometimes made in advance.  For example the publishers Brüggemann secured the copyright of a print of the unveiling of a statue of Rembrandt in Amsterdam well over a month before the actual event

Addendum: Swedish articles

Just as the pages of this issue of photohistorica were to be taken to the printers, a list of articles on the history of photography that had been published in Swedish during 1994 was received from Erika Johansson–Cowell at the Fotosekretariatet, Nordiska Museet, Stockholm.  Because printing could  be  delayed only a short time (for photohistorica was due to be dispatched to members along with an ESHPh Newsletter) those items from Swedish  publications could not be incorporated into the main body of this bibliography, but are provided instead in this addendum.

PH94–7876    Det första kända svenska kungafotografiet
Sörmlandsbygden, 1994, 57–60
‘The first known Swedish royal portrait’ is a daguerrotype of Oscar I from 1841.

Från salonger till enkla möten  [From Salons to everyday encounters]
Foto, 1994, 10, 32–7
A history of Swedish portraiture, from J.W. Bergström and Johannes Jaeger to Hans Gedda. [general]

Strindberg som fotograf: Var det Siri som tog de bästa korten?
[Strindberg as a photographer: Did Siri take the best pictures?]
Vi, 1994, (34/35), 73–6

Med världen som hembygd [With the world as your back–yard]
Bygd och natur. Tidskrift för hembygdsvård, 1994, 4, 23–6
On Albert Kahn’s picture archive Archive de la Plante in Paris,
and Auguste Léon’s photographs from a journey through Sweden in 1910. Autochromes. [general]

PH94–7880      En tidsepok i bild: Foto KW Gullers
[An Era in Images: Photographs by K. W. Gullers]
Fataburen. Nordiska museets och Skansens årsbok 1994 (Stockholm),
In 1990 the Nordiska Museet purchased the collection (containing 470000 negatives among other things) of photographer KW Gullers covering the period from 1938–1978.  The article is richly illustrated, mainly in black– and–white images from the 1940’s and 50’s.  [collections]

PH94–7881    Vardagsnära bilder: Om fotografen Gunnar Lundh.
[Everyday Images: the Photographer
Gunnar Lundh (1898–1960) ]
Fataburen. Nordiska museets och Skansens årsbok 1994 (Stockholm),
Illustrated mainly with black–and–white photographs. Swedish everyday life from 1930–50.  In 1961 his archive (300000 negatives, slides, prints) was donated to Nordiska Museet, Stockholm. [collections]

PH94–7882    Fotografiet och den hysteriska kroppen
[The Photograph and the Hysterical Body]
Index. Contemporary Scandinavian Images 1994, (3/4), 58–63
Mötet mellan Maya Eizins verk och en serie medicinska fotografier av en kvinna från sekelskiftet. Artikeln belyser hur begreppet ‘hysteri’ växte fram mycket tack vare fotografen Régnards fotografier som illustrerade Charcots upptäckt. —  The confrontation of Maya Eizin’s work and a series of clinical photographs of a woman from the turn of the century. The article illustrates how the term ‘hysteria’ developed through the use of photographic illustrations by the photographer Régnard, illustrations that accompanied Charcot’s studies in Paris in the 1870s.    [iconography]

PH94–7883   Svensk fotograf tog sista nakenbilden av Marilyn Monroe
[Swedish Photographer shot last nude picture of Marilyn Monroe]
Foto, 1994, (2), 26–29
Interview with Leif–Erik Nygårds. ‘Scoop’, the last nude picture of Marilyn Monroe was not actually shot by Bert Stern as previously claimed but by his then (1962) twenty–two year–old Swedish assistant Leif–Erik Nygårds. [iconography]

PH94–7884  Hans liv har varit som en James Bond–film
[His life resembles a James Bond film]
Land, 1994, 46, 2–3
An interview with Swedish film director and photographer Arne Sucksdorff.    [biography]


The Editor thanks the following persons for their help [with the 1994 listing]:

Audrey Linkman of Manchester kindly carried out the listing of two British photographica journals; Bill Main provided information on articles published in New Zealand; Marie–Loup Sougez in Madrid searched for articles published in Spain;  Dr Monica Maffioli of Firenze compiled a list of articles that appeared in Italy during 1994; and Jens Jäger in Hamburg has been of help with German publications.


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